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Samuel P. Huntington

Data de nascimento: 18. Abril 1927
Data de falecimento: 24. Dezembro 2008

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Samuel P. Huntington foi um cientista político norte-americano, muito influente nos círculos politicamente mais conservadores.

Tornou-se conhecido por sua análise do relacionamento entre os militares e o poder civil, por suas investigações acerca dos golpes de estado e, principalmente, por sua polêmica teoria do choque de civilizações, inspirada pelo historiador e filósofo polonês Feliks Koneczny, segundo a qual os principais atores políticos do século XXI seriam civilizações e não os estados nacionais, e as principais fontes de conflitos após a guerra fria, não seriam as tensões ideológicas mas as culturais.

O conceito do choque de civilizações apareceu pela primeira vez em um artigo publicado em 1993 na revista Foreign Affairs. Posteriormente, Huntington ampliou sua tese no livro "O choque de civilizações", publicado em 1996 e traduzido em mais de 39 idiomas.

Samuel Huntington foi autor, co-autor e editor de 17 livros e mais de 90 artigos acadêmicos sobre seus principais temas de trabalho. Mais recentemente, analisou as ameaças que a imigração representa para os Estados Unidos. Ele é considerado um importante autor conservador contemporâneo.

Citações Samuel P. Huntington

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„In the emerging world of ethnic conflict and civilizational clash, Western belief in the universality of Western culture suffers three problems: it is false; it is immoral; and it is dangerous.“

—  Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order
Context: Normatively the Western universalist belief posits that people throughout the world should embrace Western values, institutions, and culture because they embody the highest, most enlightened, most liberal, most rational, most modern, and most civilized thinking of humankind. In the emerging world of ethnic conflict and civilizational clash, Western belief in the universality of Western culture suffers three problems: it is false; it is immoral; and it is dangerous. Context: Cultural and civilizational diversity challenges the Western and particularly American belief in the universal relevance of Western culture. This belief is expressed both descriptively and normatively. Descriptively it holds that peoples in all societies want to adopt Western values, institutions, and practices. If they seem not to have that desire and to be committed to their own traditional cultures, they are victims of a “false consciousness” comparable to that which Marxists found among proletarians who supported capitalism. Normatively the Western universalist belief posits that people throughout the world should embrace Western values, institutions, and culture because they embody the highest, most enlightened, most liberal, most rational, most modern, and most civilized thinking of humankind. In the emerging world of ethnic conflict and civilizational clash, Western belief in the universality of Western culture suffers three problems: it is false; it is immoral; and it is dangerous. … The belief that non-Western peoples should adopt Western values, institutions, and culture is immoral because of what would be necessary to bring it about. The almost-universal reach of European power in the late nineteenth century and the global dominance of the United States in the late twentieth century spread much of Western civilization across the world. European globalism, however, is no more. American hegemony is receding if only because it is no longer needed to protect the United States against a Cold War-style Soviet military threat. Culture, as we have argued, follows power. If non-Western societies are once again to be shaped by Western culture, it will happen only as a result of the expansion, deployment, and impact of Western power. Imperialism is the necessary logical consequence of universalism. In addition, as a maturing civilization, the West no longer has the economic or demographic dynamism required to impose its will on other societies and any effort to do so is also contrary to the Western values of self-determination and democracy. As Asian and Muslim civilizations begin more and more to assert the universal relevance of their cultures, Westerners will come to appreciate more and more the connection between universalism and imperialism. Ch. 12 : The West, Civilizations, and Civilization, § 2 : The West In The World, p. 310 Context: A world in which cultural identities — ethnic, national, religious, civilizational — are central, and cultural affinities and differences shape the alliances, antagonisms, and policies of states has three broad implications for the West generally and for the United States in particular. First, statesmen can constructively alter reality only if they recognize and understand it. The emerging politics of culture, the rising power of non-Western civilizations, and the increasing cultural assertiveness of these societies have been widely recognized in the non-Western world. European leaders have pointed to the cultural forces drawing people together and driving them apart. American elites, in contrast, have been slow to accept and to come to grips with these emerging realities. Ch. 12 : The West, Civilizations, and Civilization, § 2 : The West In The World, p. 308

„The futures of both peace and Civilization depend upon understanding and cooperation among the political, spiritual, and intellectual leaders of the world’s major civilizations.“

—  Samuel P. Huntington
Context: The futures of both peace and Civilization depend upon understanding and cooperation among the political, spiritual, and intellectual leaders of the world’s major civilizations. In the clash of civilizations, Europe and America will hang together or hang separately. In the greater clash, the global “real clash,” between Civilization and barbarism, the world’s great civilizations, with their rich accomplishments in religion, art, literature, philosophy, science, technology, morality, and compassion, will also hang together or hang separately. In the emerging era, clashes of civilizations are the greatest threat to world peace, and an international order based on civilizations is the surest safeguard against world war. Ch. 12 : The West, Civilizations, and Civilization, § 4 : The Commonalities Of Civilization, p. 321

„In Western Europe, anti-Semitism directed against Arabs has largely replaced Anti-Semitism against Jews“

—  Samuel P. Huntington
Ch. 8 : The West and the Rest: Intercivilizational Issues, § 3 : Immigration, p. 200

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„Undoubtedly many more people in the world are concerned with sports than with human rights.“

—  Samuel P. Huntington
Ch. 8 : The West and the Rest: Intercivilizational Issues, § 3 : Human Rights And Democracy, p. 197

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„All civilizations go though similar processes of emergence, rise, and decline. The West differs from other civilizations not in the way it has developed but in the distinctive character of its values and institutions. These include most notably its Christianity, pluralism, individualism, and rule of law, which made it possible for the West to invent modernity, expand throughout the world, and become the envy of other societies. In their ensemble these characteristics are peculiar to the West. Europe, as Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., has said, is “the source — the unique source” of the “ideas of individual liberty, political democracy, the rule of law, human rights, and cultural freedom. . . . These are European ideas, not Asian, nor African, nor Middle Eastern ideas, except by adoption.” They make Western civilization unique, and Western civilization is valuable not because it is universal but because it is unique. The principal responsibility of Western leaders, consequently, is not to attempt to reshape other civilizations in the image of the West, which is beyond their declining power, but to preserve, protect, and renew the unique qualities of Western civilization. Because it is the most powerful Western country, that responsibility falls overwhelmingly on the United States of America.
To preserve Western civilization in the face of declining Western power, it is in the interest of the United States and European countries … to recognize that Western intervention in the affairs of other civilizations is probably the single most dangerous source of instability and potential global conflict in a multicivilizational world.“

—  Samuel P. Huntington
Ch. 12 : The West, Civilizations, and Civilization, § 2 : The West In The World, p. 311

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