„Look more carefully…to find out what it really is that is repeating there …. Beyond its elements, each building [or town] is defined by certain patterns of relationships among the elements…. These relationships are not extra, but necessary to the elements… The elements themselves are patterns of relationships.“

—  Christopher Alexander, livro The Timeless Way of Building, The Timeless Way of Building (1979), Cited in: Peter Coad (1992, p. 152) About To find patterns, what does one look for?
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Hermann Weyl photo

„It seems clear that [set theory] violates against the essence of the continuum, which, by its very nature, cannot at all be battered into a single set of elements. Not the relationship of an element to a set, but of a part to a whole ought to be taken as a basis for the analysis of a continuum.“

—  Hermann Weyl German mathematician 1885 - 1955
Riemanns geometrische Ideen, ihre Auswirkungen und ihre Verknüpfung mit der Gruppentheorie (1925), as quoted/translated by Erhard Scholz, "Philosophy as a Cultural Resource and Medium of Reflection for Hermann Weyl" (2004)

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Buckminster Fuller photo

„A pattern has an integrity independent of the medium by virtue of which you have received the information that it exists. Each of the chemical elements is a pattern integrity. Each individual is a pattern integrity. The pattern integrity of the human individual is evolutionary and not static.“

—  Buckminster Fuller American architect, systems theorist, author, designer, inventor and futurist 1895 - 1983
1970s, Synergetics: Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking (1975), "Synergy" onwards, Pattern Integrity 505.201 http://www.rwgrayprojects.com/synergetics/s05/p0400.html#505

Ed Yourdon photo

„Elements (lines of code) in a coincidentally-cohesive module have no relationship. Typically occurs as the result of modularizing existing code, to separate out redundant code.“

—  Ed Yourdon American software engineer and pioneer in the software engineering methodology 1944 - 2016
Structured design: fundamentals of a discipline of computer program and systems design (1979), p. 109; as cited in " Design http://swansonsoftware.com/acme/default.asp" at swansonsoftware.com Draft Version 0.9, December 3 2005.

„Each element in the system is ignorant of the behaviour of the system as a whole, it responds only to information that is available to it locally… If each element 'knew' what was happening to the system as a whole, all of the complexity would have to be present in that element.“

—  Paul Cilliers South African philosopher 1956 - 2011
Complexity and Postmodernism (1998), p. 4-5; as cited in: Peter Buirski, ‎Amanda Kottler (2007) New Developments in Self Psychology Practice http://books.google.nl/books?id=PinroXBLDkIC&pg=PA9, p. 9

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W. Brian Arthur photo

„Complexity is looking at interacting elements and asking how they form patterns and how the patterns unfold. It’s important to point out that the patterns may never be finished. They’re open-ended. In standard science this hit some things that most scientists have a negative reaction to. Science doesn’t like perpetual novelty.“

—  W. Brian Arthur American economist 1946
Context: Complexity theory is really a movement of the sciences. Standard sciences tend to see the world as mechanistic. That sort of science puts things under a finer and finer microscope. In biology the investigations go from classifying organisms to functions of organisms, then organs themselves, then cells, and then organelles, right down to protein and enzymes, metabolic pathways, and DNA. This is finer and finer reductionist thinking. The movement that started complexity looks in the other direction. It’s asking, how do things assemble themselves? How do patterns emerge from these interacting elements? Complexity is looking at interacting elements and asking how they form patterns and how the patterns unfold. It’s important to point out that the patterns may never be finished. They’re open-ended. In standard science this hit some things that most scientists have a negative reaction to. Science doesn’t like perpetual novelty. "Coming from Your Inner Self", Conversation with W. Brian Arthur, Xerox PARC (16 April 1999) http://web.archive.org/web/20071011023150/http://www.dialogonleadership.org/Arthur-1999.html, by Joseph Jaworski, Gary Jusela, C. Otto Scharmer

Russell L. Ackoff photo

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