„Quantities defined in terms of measurements made at the end of the period in question are referred to as ex post; quantities defined in terms of action planned at the beginning of the period in question are referred to as .“

Fonte: Monetary Equilibrium (1939), p. 34
Contexto: An important distinction exists between prospective and retrospective methods of calculating economic quantities such as incomes, savings, and investments; and... a corresponding distinction of great theoretical importance must be drawn between two alternative methods of defining these quantities. Quantities defined in terms of measurements made at the end of the period in question are referred to as ex post; quantities defined in terms of action planned at the beginning of the period in question are referred to as.

Gunnar Myrdal photo
Gunnar Myrdal1
1898 - 1987

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Gunnar Myrdal photo

„In enterprise modelling, we want to define the actions performed within an enterprise, and define constraints for plans and schedules which are constructed to satisfy the goals of the enterprise. This leads to the following set of informal competency questions:“

—  Mark S. Fox Canadian computer scientist and Professor of Industrial Engineering 1952

Temporal projection - Given a set of actions that occur at different points in the future, what are the properties of resources and activities at arbitrary points in time?
Planning and scheduling - what sequence of activities must be completed to achieve some goal? At what times must these activities be initiated and terminated?
Execution monitoring and external events - What are the effects of the occurrence of external and unexpected events (such as machine breakdown or the unavailability of resources) on a plan or schedule?
Time-based competition - we want to design an enterprise that minimizes the cycle time for a product. This is essentially the task of finding a minimum duration plan that minimizes action occurrences and maximizes concurrency of activities.
Fonte: Methodology for the Design and Evaluation of Ontologies (1995), p. 3-4

Gautama Buddha photo
Douglas Hofstadter photo

„No reference is truly direct—every reference depends on some kind of coding scheme. It's just a question of how implicit it is.“

—  Douglas Hofstadter, livro Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid

"Six-Part Ricercar"
Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid (1979)

Isaac Newton photo

„Whereas in Arithmetick Questions are only resolv'd by proceeding from given Quantities to the Quantities sought, Algebra proceeds in a retrograde Order, from the Quantities sought as if they were given, to the Quantities given as if they were sought, to the End that we may some Way or other come to a Conclusion or Æquation, from which one may bring out the Quantity sought.“

—  Isaac Newton, livro Arithmetica Universalis

Arithmetica Universalis (1707)
Contexto: Whereas in Arithmetick Questions are only resolv'd by proceeding from given Quantities to the Quantities sought, Algebra proceeds in a retrograde Order, from the Quantities sought as if they were given, to the Quantities given as if they were sought, to the End that we may some Way or other come to a Conclusion or Æquation, from which one may bring out the Quantity sought. And after this Way the most difficult problems are resolv'd, the Resolutions whereof would be sought in vain from only common Arithmetick. Yet Arithmetick in all its Operations is so subservient to Algebra, as that they seem both but to make one perfect Science of Computing; and therefore I will explain them both together.<!--pp.1-2

Marilyn vos Savant photo

„The original answer defines certain conditions, […] Anything else is a different question.“

—  Marilyn vos Savant US American magazine columnist, author and lecturer 1946

Regarding ambiguity in her famous statement of the Monty Hall problem. "Ask Marilyn" column, Parade Magazine, 17 February 1991, p. 12.

Salil Shetty photo

„The question of the right to privacy must be one of the defining issues of our time.“

—  Salil Shetty human rights campaigner 1961

World Economic Forum, Davos 2014: Top quotes of the day https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2014/01/top-10-quotes-day-davos-2014-one/, January 22, 2014

„To grow or not to grow is neither a well-defined nor a relevant question until the location, sense, and subject of growing and the growth process itself are defined“

—  Mihajlo D. Mesarovic Serbian academic 1928

Cited in: John Cunningham Wood (1993) Thorstein Veblen: Critical Assessments. p. 408
Mankind at the Turning Point, (1974)

Paul Tillich photo
Herbert Hoover photo
Václav Havel photo
Gunnar Myrdal photo

„An infinite question is often destroyed by finite answers. To define everything is to annihilate much that gives us laughter and joy.“

—  Madeleine L'Engle American writer 1918 - 2007

Section 1.10 <!-- p. 30 -->
The Crosswicks Journal, A Circle of Quiet (1972)
Contexto: Here we are living in a world of "identity crises," and most of us have no idea what an identity is.
Half the problem is that an identity is something which must be understood intuitively, rather than in terms of provable fact. An infinite question is often destroyed by finite answers. To define everything is to annihilate much that gives us laughter and joy.

Larry Wall photo

„We question most of the mantras around here periodically, in case you hadn't noticed.“

—  Larry Wall American computer programmer and author, creator of Perl 1954

[199705101952.MAA00756@wall.org, 1997]
Usenet postings, 1997

John Allen Fraser photo
Karen Marie Moning photo

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“