# „Any one who considers arithmetical methods of producing random digits is, of course, in a state of sin.“

On mistaking pseudorandom number generators for being truly "random" — this quote is often erroneously interpreted to mean that von Neumann was against the use of pseudorandom numbers, when in reality he was cautioning about misunderstanding their true nature while advocating their use. From "Various techniques used in connection with random digits" by John von Neumann in Monte Carlo Method (1951) edited by A.S. Householder, G.E. Forsythe, and H.H. Germond <!-- National Bureau of Standards Applied Mathematics Series, 12 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1951): 36-38. -->
Contexto: Any one who considers arithmetical methods of producing random digits is, of course, in a state of sin. For, as has been pointed out several times, there is no such thing as a random number — there are only methods to produce random numbers, and a strict arithmetic procedure of course is not such a method.

Última atualização 22 de Maio de 2020. História
1903 - 1957

### „There is scarcely any one who states purely arithmetical questions, scarcely any who understands them. Is this not because arithmetic has been treated up to this time geometrically rather than arithmetically?“

—  Pierre de Fermat French mathematician and lawyer 1601 - 1665

Letter to Frénicle (1657) Oeuvres de Fermat Vol.II as quoted by Edward Everett Whitford, The Pell Equation http://books.google.com/books?id=L6QKAAAAYAAJ (1912)
Contexto: There is scarcely any one who states purely arithmetical questions, scarcely any who understands them. Is this not because arithmetic has been treated up to this time geometrically rather than arithmetically? This certainly is indicated by many works ancient and modern. Diophantus himself also indicates this. But he has freed himself from geometry a little more than others have, in that he limits his analysis to rational numbers only; nevertheless the Zetcica of Vieta, in which the methods of Diophantus are extended to continuous magnitude and therefore to geometry, witness the insufficient separation of arithmetic from geometry. Now arithmetic has a special domain of its own, the theory of numbers. This was touched upon but only to a slight degree by Euclid in his Elements, and by those who followed him it has not been sufficiently extended, unless perchance it lies hid in those books of Diophantus which the ravages of time have destroyed. Arithmeticians have now to develop or restore it. To these, that I may lead the way, I propose this theorem to be proved or problem to be solved. If they succeed in discovering the proof or solution, they will acknowledge that questions of this kind are not inferior to the more celebrated ones from geometry either for depth or difficulty or method of proof: Given any number which is not a square, there also exists an infinite number of squares such that when multiplied into the given number and unity is added to the product, the result is a square.

### „The method of arithmetical teaching]] is perhaps the best understood of any of the methods concerned with elementary studies.“

—  Alexander Bain Scottish philosopher and educationalist 1818 - 1903

Fonte: Education as a Science, 1898, p. 288.

### „Random numbers should not be generated with a method chosen at random“

—  Donald Ervin Knuth, livro The Art of Computer Programming

Vol. II, Seminumerical Algorithms
The Art of Computer Programming (1968–2011)

### „I myself am pursuing the same instinctive course as the veriest human animal you can think of — I am, however young, writing at random — straining at particles of light in the midst of a great darkness — without knowing the bearing of any one assertion, of any one opinion. Yet may I not in this be free from sin?“

—  John Keats English Romantic poet 1795 - 1821

Letter to George and Georgiana Keats (March 19, 1819)
Letters (1817–1820)

### „The analysis of variance is not a mathematical theorem, but rather a convenient method of arranging the arithmetic.“

—  Ronald Fisher English statistician, evolutionary biologist, geneticist, and eugenicist 1890 - 1962

Discussion to ‘Statistics in agricultural research’ by J.Wishart, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Supplement, 1, 26-61, 1934.
1930s

### „Can the seventeenth-century rationalist, who produced one of the most ambitious philosophical systems in the history of Western philosophy, be considered, by any stretch of interpretation, a Jewish thinker? Can he even be considered a Jew? Benedictus Spinoza is the greatest philosopher that the Jews ever produced, which adds a certain irony to his questionable Jewishness.“

—  Baruch Spinoza Dutch philosopher 1632 - 1677

Rebecca Goldstein, Betraying Spinoza: The Renegade Jew Who Gave Us Modernity (New York: Schocken, 2006)
G - L

### „Every course would be a course in methods of learning and, therefore, in methods of teaching.“

—  Neil Postman American writer and academic 1931 - 2003

Teaching as a Subversive Activity (1969)
Contexto: If every college teacher taught his courses in the manner we have suggested, there would be no needs for a methods course. Every course would be a course in methods of learning and, therefore, in methods of teaching. For example, a "literature" course would be a course in the process of learning how to read. A history course would be a course in the process of learning how to do history. And so on. But this is the most farfetched possibility of all since college teachers, generally speaking, are more fixated on the Trivia game, than any group of teachers in the educational hierarchy. Thus we are left with the hope that, if methods courses could be redesigned to be model learning environments, the educational revolution might begin. In other words, it will begin as soon as there are enough young teachers who sufficiently despise the crippling environments they are employed to supervise to want to subvert them. The revolution will begin to be visible when such teachers take the following steps (many students who have been through the course we have described do not regard these as "impractical"): 1. Eliminate all conventional "tests" and "testing." 2. Eliminate all "courses." 3. Eliminate all "requirements." 4. Eliminate all full time administrators and administrations. 5. Eliminate all restrictions that confine learners to sitting still in boxes inside of boxes.... the conditions we want to eliminate... happen to be the sources of the most common obstacles to learning. We have largely trapped ourselves in our schools into expending almost all of our energies and resources in the direction of preserving patterns and procedures that make no sense even in their own terms. They simply do not produce the results that are claimed as their justification in the first place — quite the contrary. If it is practical to persist in subsidizing at an ever-increasing social cost a system which condemns our youth to ten or 12 or 16 years of servitude in a totalitarian environment ostensibly for the purpose of training them to be fully functioning, self-renewing citizens of democracy, then we are vulnerable to whatever criticisms that can be leveled.

### „The needs of business, and the extensive market obviously waiting, assured the advent of mass-produced arithmetical machines just as soon as production methods were sufficiently advanced.With machines for advanced analysis no such situation existed; for there was and is no extensive market; the users of advanced methods of manipulating data are a very small part of the population.“

—  Vannevar Bush, livro As We May Think

As We May Think (1945)

### „T is one and the same Nature that rolls on her course, and whoever has sufficiently considered the present state of things might certainly conclude as to both the future and the past.“

—  Michel De Montaigne, livro Ensaios

Book II, Ch. 12. Apology for Raimond Sebond
Essais (1595), Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, 10th ed. (1919)

### „Of course the intellectual class did not notice this for many decades, as an intellectual is a highly educated man who can't do arithmetic with his shoes on, and is proud of the lack.“

—  Robert A. Heinlein, livro The Cat Who Walks Through Walls

Fonte: The Cat Who Walks Through Walls (1985), p. 564

### „This method of mine takes its beginnings where Cavalieri ends his Method of indivisibles…. for as his was the Geometry of indivisibles, so I have chosen to call my method the Arithmetic of infinitesimals.“

—  John Wallis English mathematician 1616 - 1703

Arithmetica Infinitorum (1656)

### „Definition of design = Everyone designs who devise courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones. The intellectual activity that produces material artifacts is no different fundamentally from the one that prescribes remedies for a sick patient or the one that devises a new sales plan for a company or a social welfare policy for a state.“

—  Herbert A. Simon American political scientist, economist, sociologist, and psychologist 1916 - 2001

Fonte: 1960s-1970s, The Sciences of the Artificial, 1969, p. 130.

### „There is no one who ever acts honestly in the administration of states, nor any helper who will save any one who maintains the cause of the just.“

—  Platón, A República

496d
The Republic

### „Using numerology to count the people I sent to heaven produces more digits than twenty-two divided by seven.“

—  Immortal Technique American rapper and activist 1978

Dance With The Devil - Hidden Track feat. Diabolic
Albums, Revolutionary Vol. 1 (2001)

### „Each nation has its own pet sins to which it is merciful, and also sins which it treats as most abhorrent. In America, we are peculiarly sensitive about big money contributions for which the donors expect any reward. In England, where in some ways the standard is higher than here, such contributions are accepted as a matter of course, nay, as one of the methods by which wealthy men obtain peerages. It would be well-nigh an impossibility for a man to secure a seat in the United States Senate by mere campaign contributions, in the way that seats in the British House of Lords have often been secured without any scandal being caused thereby.“

—  Theodore Roosevelt American politician, 26th president of the United States 1858 - 1919

Fonte: 1910s, Ch. VIII : The New York Governorship

### „That is the one unforgivable sin in any society. Be different and be damned!“

—  Margaret Mitchell, Gone with the Wind

Fonte: Gone with the Wind

### „Any random group of thirty Vietnamese women will contain a dozen who make Julia Roberts look like Lyle Lovett.“

—  P. J. O'Rourke American journalist 1947

All the Trouble in the World (1994)

### „Of course a bilingual state is more expensive than a unilingual one — but it is a richer state.“

—  Pierre Trudeau 15th Prime Minister of Canada 1919 - 2000

Remark in 1968, quoted in Improving Canada's Democracy (2006) by Terry Julian, p. 14

### „The real value of tests is not that they detect bugs in the code, but that they detect inadequacies in the methods, concentration, and skills of those who design and produce the code.“

—  C. A. R. Hoare British computer scientist 1934

How Did Software Get So Reliable Without Proof? Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol 1051 1996 pp. 1-17 : FME '96: Industrial Benefit and Advances in Formal Methods, Third International Symposium of Formal Methods Europe, Co-Sponsored by IFIP WG 14.3, Oxford, UK, March 18-22, 1996, Proceedings.

### „Even though homosexuality is considered a sin in all the Semitic holy books, it does not require any punishment in this world. It is a sin that will accompany its committee in the life after death.“

—  Salman al-Ouda journalist 1956

2016