„Sight and seeing are powers and activities of soul, relying on the underlying materials but not reducible to them. Moreover, sight and seeing are not knowable through our objectified science, but only through lived experience.“

Looking for an Honest Man (2009)
Contexto: I turned to [Aristotle's] De Anima (On Soul), expecting to get help with understanding the difference between a living human being and its corpse, relevant for the difficult task of determining whether some persons on a respirator are alive or dead. I discovered to my amazement that Aristotle has almost no interest in the difference between the living and the dead. Instead, one learns most about life and soul not, as we moderns might suspect, from the boundary conditions when an organism comes into being or passes away, but rather when the organism is at its peak, its capacious body actively at work in energetic relation to—that is, in "souling"—the world: in the activities of sensing, imagining, desiring, moving, and thinking. Even more surprising, in place of our dualistic ideas of soul as either a "ghost in the machine," invoked by some in order to save the notion of free will, or as a separate immortal entity that departs the body at the time of death, invoked by others to address the disturbing fact of apparent personal extinction, Aristotle offers a powerful and still defensible holistic idea of soul as the empowered and empowering "form of a naturally organic body." "Soul" names the unified powers of aliveness, awareness, action, and appetite that living beings all manifest.
This is not mysticism or superstition, but biological fact, albeit one that, against current prejudice, recognizes the difference between mere material and its empowering form. Consider, for example, the eye. The eye's power of sight, though it "resides in" and is inseparable from material, is not itself material. Its light-absorbing chemicals do not see the light they absorb. Like any organ, the eye has extension, takes up space, can be touched and grasped by the hand. But neither the power of the eye — sight — nor sight's activity — seeing — is extended, ­touchable, ­corporeal. Sight and seeing are powers and activities of soul, relying on the underlying materials but not reducible to them. Moreover, sight and seeing are not knowable through our objectified science, but only through lived experience. A blind neuroscientist could give precise quantitative details regarding electrical discharges in the eye produced by the stimulus of light, and a blind craftsman could with instruction fashion a good material model of the eye; but sight and seeing can be known only by one who sees.

Leon R. Kass photo
Leon R. Kass20
American academic 1939

Citações relacionadas

Alexandre Dumas photo
Théophile Gautier photo

„Eyes so transparent that through them one sees the lucent soul.“

—  Théophile Gautier, Paris

Ils sont si transparents qu'ils laissent voir votre âme.
"À Deux Beaux Yeux", line 12, in Poésies Complètes (Paris: Charpentier, 1845) p. 278; Maturin Murray Ballou (ed.) Notable Thoughts about Women (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1882) p. 398.

Giuseppe Peano photo
Basil of Caesarea photo
Ellen G. White photo
Alexander Pope photo

„Charms strike the sight, but merit wins the soul.“

—  Alexander Pope, The Rape of the Lock

Canto V, line 33.
Variante: Beauties in vain their pretty eyes may roll;
Charms strike the sight, but merit wins the soul.
Fonte: The Rape of the Lock (1712, revised 1714 and 1717)

Michael Chabon photo
Rudolf Virchow photo

„The task of science is to stake out the limits of the knowable, and to center consciousness within them.“

—  Rudolf Virchow German doctor, anthropologist, public health activist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist and politician 1821 - 1902

1849 (R. Virchow. Der Mensch (On Man). Berlin, 1849. English translation in: L. J. Rather, Disease, Life and Man -- Selected Essays of Rudolf Virchow, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA, pp. 67–70, 1958).

Alexandre Dumas photo

„A weakened mind always sees everything through a black veil. The soul makes its own horizons; your soul is dark, which is why you see such a cloudy sky.“

—  Alexandre Dumas, livro O Conde de Monte Cristo

Variante: It is the way of weakened minds to see everything through a black cloud. The soul forms its own horizons; your soul is darkened, and consequently the sky of the future appears stormy and unpromising
Fonte: The Count of Monte Cristo

Sherrilyn Kenyon photo
Ralph Waldo Emerson photo

„The soul active sees absolute truth; and utters truth, or creates.“

—  Ralph Waldo Emerson American philosopher, essayist, and poet 1803 - 1882

1830s, The American Scholar http://www.emersoncentral.com/amscholar.htm (1837)

Theodore Roszak photo
Alexej von Jawlensky photo
Bhagawan Nityananda photo
Kurien Kunnumpuram photo
Henri Poincaré photo

„It is only through science and art that civilization is of value.“

—  Henri Poincaré, livro The Value of Science

Some have wondered at the formula: science for its own sake; an yet it is as good as life for its own sake, if life is only misery; and even as happiness for its own sake, if we do not believe that all pleasures are of the same quality...
Every act should have an aim. We must suffer, we must work, we must pay for our place at the game, but this is for seeing's sake; or at the very least that others may one day see.
Fonte: The Value of Science (1905), Ch. 11: Science and Reality

Algernon Charles Swinburne photo

„Not from without us, only from within,
Comes or can ever come upon us light
Whereby the soul keeps ever truth in sight.“

—  Algernon Charles Swinburne English poet, playwright, novelist, and critic 1837 - 1909

"The Monument of Giordano Bruno", inspired by the statue in memory of Giordano Bruno at the place where he was burned as a heretic.
Astrophel and Other Poems (1894)
Contexto: Not from without us, only from within,
Comes or can ever come upon us light
Whereby the soul keeps ever truth in sight.
No truth, no strength, no comfort man may win,
No grace for guidance, no release from sin,
Save of his own soul's giving.

Malala Yousafzai photo
Julian of Norwich photo
Terry Pratchett photo

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“