### „Euclidean geometry is only one of several congruence geometries… Each of these geometries is characterized by a real number K, which for Euclidean geometry is 0, for the hyperbolic negative, and for the spherical and elliptic geometries, positive. In the case of 2-dimensional congruence spaces… K may be interpreted as the curvature of the surface into the third dimension—whence it derives its name…“

— Howard P. Robertson American mathematician and physicist 1903 - 1961

Geometry as a Branch of Physics (1949)