„If we now reintroduce the conception of the complex organization as an open system subject to criteria of rationality, we are in a position to speculate about some dynamic properties of organizations.“

—  James D. Thompson, p. 11
James D. Thompson11
American sociologist 1920 - 1973

Citações relacionadas

Auguste Comte photo
J. Doyne Farmer photo

„Every isolated determinate dynamic system, obeying unchanging laws, will ultimately develop some sort of organisms that are adapted to their environments.“

—  W. Ross Ashby British psychiatrist 1903 - 1972
Ashby (1962), quoted in: V. Lawrence Parsegian (1972) This cybernetic world of men, machines, and earth systems'. p. 178: About the principle of

Carl Sagan photo

„We are confronted with problems of organized complexity... organization runs through all levels of reality and science.“

—  Ludwig von Bertalanffy austrian biologist and philosopher 1901 - 1972
p. 58. as cited in: Doede Keuning (1973) Algemene systeemtheorie. p. 185

William James photo

„The notion of system we are interested in may be described generally as a complex of elements or components directly or indirectly related in a network of interrelationships of various kinds, such that it constitutes a dynamic whole with emergent properties.“

—  Walter F. Buckley American sociologist 1922 - 2006
p. 35 as cited in: (2006) A Typology of Emergence in Social Systems and Sociocybernetic Theory http://www.unizar.es/sociocybernetics/congresos/DURBAN/papers/bailey.pdf.

J. Doyne Farmer photo
Francisco Varela photo