„Simpson's paradox (Simpson 1951; Blyth 1972), first encountered by Pearson in 1899 (Aldrich 1995), refers to the phenomenon whereby an event C increases the probability of E in a given population p and, at the same time, decreases the probability of E in every subpopulation of p.“

Fonte: Causality: Models, Reasoning, and Inference, 2000, p. 1

Obtido da Wikiquote. Última atualização 3 de Junho de 2021. História

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„Had population and food increased in the same ratio, it is probable that man might never have emerged from the savage state.“

—  Thomas Robert Malthus British political economist 1766 - 1834

Fonte: An Essay on The Principle of Population (First Edition 1798, unrevised), Chapter XVIII, paragraph 11, lines 16-17

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„Lety5 - ay4 + by3 - cy2 + dy - e = 0be the general equation of the fifth degree and suppose that it can be solved algebraically,—i. e., that y can be expressed as a function of the quantities a, b, c, d, and e, composed of radicals. In this case, it is clear that y can be written in the formy = p + p1R1/m + p2R2/m +…+ pm-1R(m-1)/m,m being a prime number, and R, p, p1, p2, etc. being functions of the same form as y. We can continue in this way until we reach rational functions of a, b, c, d, and e. [Note: main body of proof is excluded]
…we can find y expressed as a rational function of Z, a, b, c, d, and e. Now such a function can always be reduced to the formy = P + R1/5 + P2R2/5 + P3R3/5 + P4R4/5, where P, R, P2, P3, and P4 are functions or the form p + p1S1/2, where p, p1 and S are rational functions of a, b, c, d, and e. From this value of y we obtainR1/5 = 1/5(y1 + α4y2 + α3y3 + α2y4 + α y5) = (p + p1S1/2)1/5,whereα4 + α3 + α2 + α + 1 = 0.Now the first member has 120 different values, while the second member has only 10; hence y can not have the form that we have found: but we have proved that y must necessarily have this form, if the proposed equation can be solved: hence we conclude that
It is impossible to solve the general equation of the fifth degree in terms of radicals.
It follows immediately from this theorem, that it is also impossible to solve the general equations of degrees higher than the fifth, in terms of radicals.“

—  Niels Henrik Abel Norwegian mathematician 1802 - 1829

A Memoir on Algebraic Equations, Proving the Impossibility of a Solution of the General Equation of the Fifth Degree (1824) Tr. W. H. Langdon, as quote in A Source Book in Mathematics (1929) ed. David Eugene Smith

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„My boobs are the bane of my life, they're a real burden. Every time I have a baby, I go up two sizes. I'll probably be an E cup after this. I can't bear it.“

—  Susannah Constantine British fashion designer and journalist 1962

As quoted in "Acne, alcohol … and non-stop sex" by Lynda Lee-Potter in Daily Mail (6 September 2003)

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„From the Christian point of view it stands firm that the truly Christian venturing requires probability. p. 101“

—  Sören Kierkegaard Danish philosopher and theologian, founder of Existentialism 1813 - 1855

1850s, Judge For Yourselves! 1851 (1876)

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„The casino is the only human venture I know where the probabilities are known, Gaussian (i. e., bell-curve), and almost computable.“

—  Nassim Nicholas Taleb Lebanese-American essayist, scholar, statistician, former trader and risk analyst 1960

Fonte: The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable (2007), p. 127

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„Nobody and nothing beats The Simpsons. Even after all this time, it's still the best satire since Monty Python.“

—  Alice Cooper American rock singer, songwriter and musician 1948

Interview with Nick Harper in The Guardian (28 November 2003).

„To every event defined for the original random walk there corresponds an event of equal probability in the dual random walk, and in this way almost every probability relation has its dual.“

—  William Feller Croatian-American mathematician 1906 - 1970

Fonte: An Introduction To Probability Theory And Its Applications (Third Edition), Chapter III, Fluctuations In Coin Tossing And Random Walks, p. 92.

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