# „Simpson's paradox (Simpson 1951; Blyth 1972), first encountered by Pearson in 1899 (Aldrich 1995), refers to the phenomenon whereby an event C increases the probability of E in a given population p and, at the same time, decreases the probability of E in every subpopulation of p.“

Fonte: Causality: Models, Reasoning, and Inference, 2000, p. 1

Obtido da Wikiquote. Última atualização 3 de Junho de 2021. História
1936

### „…introduce the auxiliary concept of first-signal…defined as the fastest message carrier between any two points in space. We now send a first-signal from P, calling the event of departure E1… The event of its arrival at P' is called E'. Simultaneously with the arrival of this signal, another first signal is sent from P'. The arrival of this signal at P is the event E2. …the time interval between E1 and E2 is coordinated to the event E', [E1 is earlier than E' and E2 is later than E'] and every event of this time interval except for the endpoints is inderterminate as to the time order relative to E.“

—  Hans Reichenbach American philosopher 1891 - 1953

The Philosophy of Space and Time (1928, tr. 1957)

### „It is not merely a question of calculating with probabilities but also one of relating the ingredients of your probability statements to reality. You do not need to think only about p(E|K) but also about the precise nature of E and K.“

—  Dennis Lindley British statistician 1923 - 2013

5. The Rules of Probability. p. 78.
Understanding Uncertainty (2006)

### „c) Decreased cost due to improved efficiency during the implementation or after the completion of the P/A/P; and“

—  Francis Escudero Filipino politician 1969

2014, Speech: Sponsorship Speech for the FY 2015 National Budget

### „The most immediate influences upon AD&D were probably de Camp & Pratt, R. E. Howard, Fritz Leiber, Jack Vance, H. P. Lovecraft, and A. Merritt.“

—  Gary Gygax American writer and game designer 1938 - 2008

Writing in Appendix N, AD&D Dungeon Masters Guide (1979), p. 224

### „In psychology one can begin to describe the whole situation by roughly distinguishing the person (P) and his environment (E). Every psychological event depends upon the state of the person and at the same time on the environment, although their relative importance is different in different cases.“

—  Kurt Lewin German-American psychologist 1890 - 1947

Fonte: 1930s, Principles of topological psychology, 1936, p. 12.

### „Had population and food increased in the same ratio, it is probable that man might never have emerged from the savage state.“

—  Thomas Robert Malthus British political economist 1766 - 1834

Fonte: An Essay on The Principle of Population (First Edition 1798, unrevised), Chapter XVIII, paragraph 11, lines 16-17

### „Lety5 - ay4 + by3 - cy2 + dy - e = 0be the general equation of the fifth degree and suppose that it can be solved algebraically,—i. e., that y can be expressed as a function of the quantities a, b, c, d, and e, composed of radicals. In this case, it is clear that y can be written in the formy = p + p1R1/m + p2R2/m +…+ pm-1R(m-1)/m,m being a prime number, and R, p, p1, p2, etc. being functions of the same form as y. We can continue in this way until we reach rational functions of a, b, c, d, and e. [Note: main body of proof is excluded]…we can find y expressed as a rational function of Z, a, b, c, d, and e. Now such a function can always be reduced to the formy = P + R1/5 + P2R2/5 + P3R3/5 + P4R4/5, where P, R, P2, P3, and P4 are functions or the form p + p1S1/2, where p, p1 and S are rational functions of a, b, c, d, and e. From this value of y we obtainR1/5 = 1/5(y1 + α4y2 + α3y3 + α2y4 + α y5) = (p + p1S1/2)1/5,whereα4 + α3 + α2 + α + 1 = 0.Now the first member has 120 different values, while the second member has only 10; hence y can not have the form that we have found: but we have proved that y must necessarily have this form, if the proposed equation can be solved: hence we conclude thatIt is impossible to solve the general equation of the fifth degree in terms of radicals.It follows immediately from this theorem, that it is also impossible to solve the general equations of degrees higher than the fifth, in terms of radicals.“

—  Niels Henrik Abel Norwegian mathematician 1802 - 1829

A Memoir on Algebraic Equations, Proving the Impossibility of a Solution of the General Equation of the Fifth Degree (1824) Tr. W. H. Langdon, as quote in A Source Book in Mathematics (1929) ed. David Eugene Smith

### „By the time I was a student in high school I was reading the classic Men of Mathematics by E. T. Bell and I remember succeeding in proving the classic Fermat theorem about an integer multiplied by itself p times where p is a prime.“

—  John Nash American mathematician and Nobel Prize laureate 1928 - 2015

Autobiographical essay (1994)

### „My boobs are the bane of my life, they're a real burden. Every time I have a baby, I go up two sizes. I'll probably be an E cup after this. I can't bear it.“

—  Susannah Constantine British fashion designer and journalist 1962

As quoted in "Acne, alcohol … and non-stop sex" by Lynda Lee-Potter in Daily Mail (6 September 2003)

### „In choosing between alternative actions, a person will choose that one for which, as perceived by him at the time, the value, V, of the result, multiplied by the probability, p, of getting the result, is the greater.“

—  George C. Homans American sociologist 1910 - 1989

Fonte: Social behavior: Its Elementary Forms, 1961, p. 43 (in 1974 edition)

### „From the Christian point of view it stands firm that the truly Christian venturing requires probability. p. 101“

—  Sören Kierkegaard Danish philosopher and theologian, founder of Existentialism 1813 - 1855

1850s, Judge For Yourselves! 1851 (1876)

### „... our confidence in foretelling and influencing events increases in inverse ratio to our ability to do so. The farther we go from ourselves and from the present, the less we sense the probabilities, and it is easy for us to be "dead certain" about things we cannot possibly know anything about.**The Rules of Chaos (1969), p 23,24“

—  Stephen Vizinczey Hungarian-Canadian writer 1933

### „The casino is the only human venture I know where the probabilities are known, Gaussian (i. e., bell-curve), and almost computable.“

—  Nassim Nicholas Taleb Lebanese-American essayist, scholar, statistician, former trader and risk analyst 1960

Fonte: The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable (2007), p. 127

### „Nonsatiation (Smith, 1976a). Given a costless choice be ween two alternatives which differ only in that the first yields more of the reward medium (e. g., currency) than the second, the first will always be chosen (preferred) over the second by an autonomous individual, i. e., utility U(M) is a monotone increasing function of the reward medium.“

—  Vernon L. Smith American economist 1927

Fonte: "Relevance of laboratory experiments to testing resource allocation theory," 1980, p. 346.

### „a remark of Monet, quoted by Ambroise Vollard, as quoted in Discovering Art, – The life time and work of the World’s greatest Artists, MONET'; K. E. Sullivan, Brockhamptonpress, London 2004, p. 44“

—  Claude Monet French impressionist painter 1840 - 1926

the sun went that day too far already, to be able to finish the painting well - in Monet's opinion

### „p>The thing that has always disturbed me about O_DIRECT is that the whole interface is just stupid, and was probably designed by a deranged monkey on some serious mind-controlling substances. [*][*] In other words, it's an Oracleism.</p“

—  Linus Torvalds Finnish-American software engineer and hacker 1969

Notes: from NOTES topic of open(2) manpage, 2009-04-13 http://linux.die.net/man/2/open,
2000s, 2009

### „Nobody and nothing beats The Simpsons. Even after all this time, it's still the best satire since Monty Python.“

—  Alice Cooper American rock singer, songwriter and musician 1948

Interview with Nick Harper in The Guardian (28 November 2003).

### „To every event defined for the original random walk there corresponds an event of equal probability in the dual random walk, and in this way almost every probability relation has its dual.“

—  William Feller Croatian-American mathematician 1906 - 1970

Fonte: An Introduction To Probability Theory And Its Applications (Third Edition), Chapter III, Fluctuations In Coin Tossing And Random Walks, p. 92.

### „Mathematical research currently relies on a complex system of mutual trust based on reputations. By the time Simpson's paper appeared, both Kapranov and I had strong reputations. Simpson's paper created doubts in our result, which led to it being unused by other researchers, but no one came forward and challenged us on it.“

—  Vladimir Voevodsky Russian mathematician 1966 - 2017