„The Rule of Three, or Golden Rule of Arithmeticall whole Numbers. Be the three termes given 2 3 4.... To finde their fourth proporcionall Terme: that is to say, in such Reason to the third terme 4, as the second terme 3, is to the first terme 2 [Modern notation: \frac{x}{4} = \frac{3}{2}].... Multiply the second terme 3, by the third terme 4, & giveth the product 12: which dividing by the first terme 2, giveth the Quotient 6: I say that 6 is the fourth proportional terme required.“

Simon Stevin photo
Simon Stevin
1548 - 1620

Citações relacionadas

David Eugene Smith photo
John Napier photo
David Eugene Smith photo
Susan Sontag photo
David Eugene Smith photo
Thomas Little Heath photo

„The discovery of Hippocrates amounted to the discovery of the fact that from the relation
(1)\frac{a}{x} = \frac{x}{y} = \frac{y}{b}it follows that(\frac{a}{x})^3 = [\frac{a}{x} \cdot \frac{x}{y} \cdot \frac{y}{b} =] \frac{a}{b}and if a = 2b, [then (\frac{a}{x})^3 = 2, and]a^3 = 2x^3.The equations (1) are equivalent [by reducing to common denominators or cross multiplication] to the three equations
(2)x^2 = ay, y^2 = bx, xy = ab[or equivalently...y = \frac{x^2}{a}, x = \frac{y^2}{b}, y = \frac{ab}{x} ][[File:HeathsApolloniusPgxxColor. jpg|thumb|Doubling the Cube
the 2 solutions of Menaechmus]]and the solutions of Menaechmus described by Eutocius amount to the determination of a point as the intersection of the curves represented in a rectangular system of Cartesian coordinates by any two of the equations (2).
Let AO, BO be straight lines placed so as to form a right angle at O, and of length a, b respectively. Produce BO to x and AO to y.
The first solution now consists in drawing a parabola, with vertex O and axis Ox, such that its parameter is equal to BO or b, and a hyperbola with Ox, Oy as asymptotes such that the rectangle under the distances of any point on the curve from Ox, Oy respectively is equal to the rectangle under AO, BO i. e. to ab. If P be the point of intersection of the parabola and hyperbola, and PN, PM be drawn perpendicular to Ox, Oy, i. e. if PN, PM be denoted by y, x, the coordinates of the point P, we shall have

\begin{cases}y^2 = b. ON = b. PM = bx\\ and\\ xy = PM. PN = ab\end{cases}whence\frac{a}{x} = \frac{x}{y} = \frac{y}{b}.
In the second solution of Menaechmus we are to draw the parabola described in the first solution and also the parabola whose vertex is O, axis Oy and parameter equal to a. The point P where the two parabolas intersect is given by\begin{cases}y^2 = bx\\x^2 = ay\end{cases}whence, as before,\frac{a}{x} = \frac{x}{y} = \frac{y}{b}.</center“

—  Thomas Little Heath British civil servant and academic 1861 - 1940

Erwin Schrödinger photo
Augustus De Morgan photo
Pete Seeger photo
Jane Roberts photo
Judea Pearl photo