„Ethical judgments can be [should be] included in the scope of science“

—  Charles West Churchman, Cited in: John P. van Gigch (2006) Wisdom, Knowledge, and Management. p. 2
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„Science can only arrange ethical propositions logically and furnish the means for the realization of ethical aims, but the determination of aims is beyond its scope.“

—  Albert Einstein German-born physicist and founder of the theory of relativity 1879 - 1955
Context: I have found no better expression than "religious" for confidence in the rational nature of reality as it is accessible to human reason. Wherever this feeling is absent, science degenerates into uninspired empiricism. … I cannot accept your opinion concerning science and ethics or the determination of aims. What we call science has the sole purpose of determining what is. The determining of what ought to be is unrelated to it and cannot be accomplished methodically. Science can only arrange ethical propositions logically and furnish the means for the realization of ethical aims, but the determination of aims is beyond its scope. At least that is the way I see it. Letter to his friend Maurice Solovine (1 January 1951) p. 120

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„The complete analysis of the methods of scientific inference shows that the theory of inference in science demands the use of ethical judgments“

—  C. West Churchman American philosopher and systems scientist 1913 - 2004
p. 256; cited in Douglas, H.E. (2009) Science, Policy, and the Value-Free Ideal

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„Those who think that science is ethically neutral confuse the findings of science, which are, with the activity of science, which is not.“

—  Jacob Bronowski Polish-born British mathematician 1908 - 1974
Context: Tolerance among scientists cannot be based on indifference, it must be based on respect. Respect as a personal value implies, in any society, the public acknowledgements of justice and of due honor. These are values which to the layman seem most remote from any abstract study. Justice, honor, the respect of man for man: What, he asks, have these human values to do with science? [... ] Those who think that science is ethically neutral confuse the findings of science, which are, with the activity of science, which is not. Part 3: "The Sense of Human Dignity", §6 (p. 63–64)

„We suffer a great deal today from the bogus certainties and precisions of the pseudo-sciences which include all the social sciences including economics.“

—  John James Cowperthwaite British colonial administrator 1915 - 2006
Context: But what I really believe is that both he and Mr Wong are innocently guilty of the twentieth century fallacy that technology can be applied to the conduct of human affairs. They cannot believe that anything can work efficiently unless it has been programmed by a computer and have lost faith in the forces of the market and the human actions and reactions that make it up. But no computer has yet been devised which will produce accurate results from a diet of opinion and emotion. We suffer a great deal today from the bogus certainties and precisions of the pseudo-sciences which include all the social sciences including economics. An article I recently read referred to the academic’s “infernal economic arithmetic which ignores human responses”. Technology is admirable on the factory floor but largely irrelevant to human affairs. March 27, 1968, page 213.

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„Physiology, Psychology, Ethics, Political Science, must submit to the same ordeal.“

—  Thomas Henry Huxley English biologist and comparative anatomist 1825 - 1895
Context: The history of civilization details the steps by which men have succeeded in building up an artificial world within the cosmos. Fragile reed as he may be, man, as Pascal says, is a thinking reed: there lies within him a fund of energy, operating intelligently and so far akin to that which pervades the universe, that it is competent to influence and modify the cosmic process. In virtue of his intelligence the dwarf bends the Titan to his will. In every family, in every polity that has been established, the cosmic process in man has been restrained and otherwise modified by law and custom; in surrounding nature, it has been similarly influenced by the art of the shepherd, the agriculturist, the artisan. As civilization has advanced, so has the extent of this interference increased; until the organized and highly developed sciences and arts of the present day have endowed man with a command over the course of non-human nature greater than that once attributed to the magicians.... a right comprehension of the process of life and of the means of influencing its manifestations is only just dawning upon us. We do not yet see our way beyond generalities; and we are befogged by the obtrusion of false analogies and crude anticipations. But Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry, have all had to pass through similar phases, before they reached the stage at which their influence became an important factor in human affairs. Physiology, Psychology, Ethics, Political Science, must submit to the same ordeal. Yet it seems to me irrational to doubt that, at no distant period, they will work as great a revolution in the sphere of practice.<!--pp.83-84

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„Ethics is the science of duties, and it's principles, perceived by reason, and revealed to us by conscience.“

—  Francisco Luís Gomes Indo-Portuguese physician, writer, historian, economist, political scientist and MP in the Portuguese parliament. 1829 - 1869
Essai sur la théorie de l'économie politique et de ses rapports avec la morale et le droit. (1867). Quoted by Teotonio R. de Souza in Indo-Portuguese history (1985), p. 210

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„Finally, integral spirituality — as the very name "integral" implies — transcends and includes science, it does not exclude, repress, or deny science.“

—  Ken Wilber American writer and public speaker 1949
Context: Finally, integral spirituality — as the very name "integral" implies — transcends and includes science, it does not exclude, repress, or deny science. To say that the spiritual currents of the cosmos cannot be captured by empirical science is not to say that they deny science, only that they show their face to other methods of seeking knowledge, of which the world has an abundance.

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