„Ethical judgments can be [should be] included in the scope of science“

—  Charles West Churchman, 1940s - 1950s, Theory of Experimental Inference (1948), Cited in: John P. van Gigch (2006) Wisdom, Knowledge, and Management. p. 2

Citações relacionadas

Albert Einstein photo

„Science can only arrange ethical propositions logically and furnish the means for the realization of ethical aims, but the determination of aims is beyond its scope.“

—  Albert Einstein German-born physicist and founder of the theory of relativity 1879 - 1955
Attributed in posthumous publications, Context: I have found no better expression than "religious" for confidence in the rational nature of reality as it is accessible to human reason. Wherever this feeling is absent, science degenerates into uninspired empiricism. … I cannot accept your opinion concerning science and ethics or the determination of aims. What we call science has the sole purpose of determining what is. The determining of what ought to be is unrelated to it and cannot be accomplished methodically. Science can only arrange ethical propositions logically and furnish the means for the realization of ethical aims, but the determination of aims is beyond its scope. At least that is the way I see it. Letter to his friend Maurice Solovine (1 January 1951) p. 120

Zakir Hussain (politician) photo

„The complete analysis of the methods of scientific inference shows that the theory of inference in science demands the use of ethical judgments“

—  C. West Churchman American philosopher and systems scientist 1913 - 2004
1940s - 1950s, Theory of Experimental Inference (1948), p. 256; cited in Douglas, H.E. (2009) Science, Policy, and the Value-Free Ideal

„The aim of science is to reduce the scope of chance.“

—  Ivars Peterson Canadian mathematician 1948
The Jungles of Randomness: A Mathematical Safari (1997), Chapter 10, “Lifetimes of Chance” (p. 201; quoting Hegel)

Jacob Bronowski photo

„Those who think that science is ethically neutral confuse the findings of science, which are, with the activity of science, which is not.“

—  Jacob Bronowski Polish-born British mathematician 1908 - 1974
Science and Human Values (1956, 1965), Context: Tolerance among scientists cannot be based on indifference, it must be based on respect. Respect as a personal value implies, in any society, the public acknowledgements of justice and of due honor. These are values which to the layman seem most remote from any abstract study. Justice, honor, the respect of man for man: What, he asks, have these human values to do with science? [... ] Those who think that science is ethically neutral confuse the findings of science, which are, with the activity of science, which is not. Part 3: "The Sense of Human Dignity", §6 (p. 63–64)

„We suffer a great deal today from the bogus certainties and precisions of the pseudo-sciences which include all the social sciences including economics.“

—  John James Cowperthwaite British colonial administrator 1915 - 2006
Official Report of Proceedings of the Hong Kong Legislative Council, Context: But what I really believe is that both he and Mr Wong are innocently guilty of the twentieth century fallacy that technology can be applied to the conduct of human affairs. They cannot believe that anything can work efficiently unless it has been programmed by a computer and have lost faith in the forces of the market and the human actions and reactions that make it up. But no computer has yet been devised which will produce accurate results from a diet of opinion and emotion. We suffer a great deal today from the bogus certainties and precisions of the pseudo-sciences which include all the social sciences including economics. An article I recently read referred to the academic’s “infernal economic arithmetic which ignores human responses”. Technology is admirable on the factory floor but largely irrelevant to human affairs. March 27, 1968, page 213.

„No science of any kind can be divorced from ethical considerations… Science is a human learning process which arises in certain subcultures in human society and not in others, and a subculture as we seen is a group of people defined by acceptance of certain common values, that is, an ethic which permits extensive communication between them.“

—  Kenneth E. Boulding British-American economist 1910 - 1993
1960s, Economics As A Moral Science, 1969, p. 2 cited in: John B. Davis (2011) Kenneth Boulding as a Moral Scientist http://epublications.marquette.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1011&context=econ_workingpapers Working paper

„Science, as traditionally defined, is fundamental to conservation biology but does no good if isolated from "softer" issues such as ethics, sociology, and political strategy. Indeed, there is nothing more dangerous than science in an ethical vacuum.“

—  Reed Noss 1952
[Conservation Biology, Whither Conservation Biology?, June 1993, 7, 2, 215–217, 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1993.07020215.x, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1993.07020215.x] (quote from p. 215)

„Ethics is the science of duties, and it's principles, perceived by reason, and revealed to us by conscience.“

—  Francisco Luís Gomes Indo-Portuguese physician, writer, historian, economist, political scientist and MP in the Portuguese parliament. 1829 - 1869
Essai sur la théorie de l'économie politique et de ses rapports avec la morale et le droit (1867), Essai sur la théorie de l'économie politique et de ses rapports avec la morale et le droit. (1867). Quoted by Teotonio R. de Souza in Indo-Portuguese history (1985), p. 210

Thomas Henry Huxley photo

„Physiology, Psychology, Ethics, Political Science, must submit to the same ordeal.“

—  Thomas Henry Huxley English biologist and comparative anatomist 1825 - 1895
Evolution and Ethics (1893), Context: The history of civilization details the steps by which men have succeeded in building up an artificial world within the cosmos. Fragile reed as he may be, man, as Pascal says, is a thinking reed: there lies within him a fund of energy, operating intelligently and so far akin to that which pervades the universe, that it is competent to influence and modify the cosmic process. In virtue of his intelligence the dwarf bends the Titan to his will. In every family, in every polity that has been established, the cosmic process in man has been restrained and otherwise modified by law and custom; in surrounding nature, it has been similarly influenced by the art of the shepherd, the agriculturist, the artisan. As civilization has advanced, so has the extent of this interference increased; until the organized and highly developed sciences and arts of the present day have endowed man with a command over the course of non-human nature greater than that once attributed to the magicians.... a right comprehension of the process of life and of the means of influencing its manifestations is only just dawning upon us. We do not yet see our way beyond generalities; and we are befogged by the obtrusion of false analogies and crude anticipations. But Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry, have all had to pass through similar phases, before they reached the stage at which their influence became an important factor in human affairs. Physiology, Psychology, Ethics, Political Science, must submit to the same ordeal. Yet it seems to me irrational to doubt that, at no distant period, they will work as great a revolution in the sphere of practice.<!--pp.83-84

Albert Einstein photo
Ken Wilber photo

„Finally, integral spirituality — as the very name "integral" implies — transcends and includes science, it does not exclude, repress, or deny science.“

—  Ken Wilber American writer and public speaker 1949
An Integral Spirituality, Context: Finally, integral spirituality — as the very name "integral" implies — transcends and includes science, it does not exclude, repress, or deny science. To say that the spiritual currents of the cosmos cannot be captured by empirical science is not to say that they deny science, only that they show their face to other methods of seeking knowledge, of which the world has an abundance.

Edward O. Wilson photo
Henry Way Kendall photo
Paul A. Samuelson photo

„Economics never was a dismal science. It should be a realistic science.“

—  Paul A. Samuelson American economist 1915 - 2009
New millennium, [Samuelson, Paul Anthony, Puttaswamaiah, K., 2002, Paul Samuelson and the Foundations of Modern Economics, 10 http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=_Lvflq4Wv-wC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA10]

Karl Pearson photo
Edmund Husserl photo
Max Born photo

„What can we scientists do in this conflict? We can join the spiritual, religious, philosophical forces, which reject war on ethical grounds. We can even attack the ideological foundations of the conflict itself. For science is not only the basis of technology but also the material for a sound philosophy.“

—  Max Born physicist 1882 - 1970
Physics in my generation (1956), Context: America has grown by expansion in a practical vacuum; the pioneers of the West had to overcome terrific natural obstacles, but negligible human resistance. The Russia of today had to conquer not only natural but human difficulties: she had to break up the rotten system of the Czars and to assimilate backward Asiatic tribes; now she has set herself the task of bringing her brand of modernization to the ancient civilizations of the Far East. For this purpose it is indispensable to have a well-defined doctrine full of slogans, which appeals to the needs and instincts of the poverty-stricken masses. Thus one understands the power which Marx's philosophy has gained in the East. What can we scientists do in this conflict? We can join the spiritual, religious, philosophical forces, which reject war on ethical grounds. We can even attack the ideological foundations of the conflict itself. For science is not only the basis of technology but also the material for a sound philosophy.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

x