„Free trade or political economy is the science of free society, and socialism is the science of slavery.“

Fonte: Sociology For The South: Or The Failure Of A Free Society (1854), p. 61

Última atualização 4 de Junho de 2020. História
George Fitzhugh photo
George Fitzhugh52
American activist 1806 - 1881

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„Science affirmed that choice was not free,— could not be free,— without abandoning the unity of force and the foundation of law. Society insisted that its choice must be left free, whatever became of science or unity.“

—  Henry Adams journalist, historian, academic, novelist 1838 - 1918

Mont Saint Michel and Chartres (1904)
Contexto: Experience proved that man's power of choice in action was very far from absolute, and logic seemed to require that every choice should have some predetermining cause which decided the will to act. Science affirmed that choice was not free,— could not be free,— without abandoning the unity of force and the foundation of law. Society insisted that its choice must be left free, whatever became of science or unity. Saint Thomas was required to illustrate the theory of liberum arbitrium by choosing a path through these difficulies, where path there was obviously none.

„The concept of a value-free science is absurd.“

—  Kenneth E. Boulding British-American economist 1910 - 1993

Fonte: 1960s, Economics As A Moral Science, 1969, p. 4 cited in: John B. Davis (2011)

„The social sciences are usually concerned with groups of persons rather than individual persons. The behavior of individuals, being free, is unpredictable.“

—  Carroll Quigley American historian 1910 - 1977

Fonte: The Evolution of Civilizations (1961) (Second Edition 1979), Chapter 3, Groups, Societies, and Civilizations, p. 67

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„Science can flourish only in an atmosphere of free speech“

—  Albert Einstein German-born physicist and founder of the theory of relativity 1879 - 1955

"Science and Dictatorship," in Dictatorship on Its Trial, by Eminent Leaders of Modern Thought (1930) - later as Dictatorship on Trial (1931), Otto Forst de Battaglia (1889-1965), ed., Huntley Paterson, trans., introduction by Winston Churchill, George G. Harrap & Co., (Reprinted 1977, Beaufort Books Inc., p. 107. https://books.google.com/books?id=IjsiAAAAMAAJ&dq=9780836916072&focus=searchwithinvolume&q=%22only+in+an+atmosphere+of+free+speech%22 https://books.google.com/books?id=alq9M3_8qIcC&dq=9780836916072&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj9w8nJkYfKAhUL12MKHf5uCscQ6AEIHDAA http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt/search?q1=%22Science%20can%20flourish%20only%20in%20an%20atmosphere%20of%20free%20speech%22;id=uc1.%24b47955;view=1up;seq=9;start=1;sz=10;page=search;orient=0 http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000590821
1930s
Contexto: A dictatorship means muzzles all round and consequently stultification. Science can flourish only in an atmosphere of free speech.

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„Political science is the study of the authoritative allocation of values for a society.“

—  David Easton Canadian academic 1917 - 2014

The Political System: An Inquiry into the State of Political Science (1953)

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„Political economy came into being as a natural result of the expansion of trade, and with its appearance elementary, unscientific huckstering was replaced by a developed system of licensed fraud, an entire science of enrichment.“

—  Friedrich Engels German social scientist, author, political theorist, and philosopher 1820 - 1895

Die Nationalökonomie entstand als eine natürliche Folge der Ausdehnung des Handels, und mit ihr trat an die Stelle des einfachen, unwissenschaftlichen Schachers ein ausgebildetes System des erlaubten Betrugs, eine komplette Bereicherungswissenschaft.
Outlines of a Critique of Political Economy (1844)

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„Political economy has only become a science since it has been confined to the results of inductive investigation.“

—  Jean-Baptiste Say French economist and businessman 1767 - 1832

Fonte: A Treatise On Political Economy (Fourth Edition) (1832), Introduction, p. xxvi

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„This political economy or science of enrichment born of the merchants’ mutual envy and greed, bears on its brow the mark of the most detestable selfishness.“

—  Friedrich Engels German social scientist, author, political theorist, and philosopher 1820 - 1895

Diese aus dem gegenseitigen Neid und der Habgier der Kaufleute entstandene Nationalökonomie oder Bereicherungswissenschaft trägt das Gepräge der ekelhaftesten Selbstsucht auf der Stirne.
Outlines of a Critique of Political Economy (1844)

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„In the domain of political economy the abstract doctrines of science leave me perfectly cold, my only standard of judgment being experience.“

—  Otto von Bismarck German statesman, Chancellor of Germany 1815 - 1898

As quoted in W. H. Dawson, Bismarck and State Socialism: An Exposition of the Social and Economic Legislation of Germany since 1870 (London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1891), p. 54
Undated

„Economics is a social science, not a physical science.“

—  Jim Stanford Canadian economist 1961

Part 1, Chapter 1, The Economy and Economics, p. 23
Economics For Everyone (2008)

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„Anything which uses science as part of its name isn't: political science, creation science, computer science.“

—  Hal Abelson computer scientist 1947

Fonte: The Nature of Belief http://www.xent.com/FoRK-archive/sept97/0213.html

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