„The aim of general synchronic linguistics is to set up the fundamental principles of any idiosynchronic system, the constituents of any language-state. Many of the items already explained in Part One belong rather to synchrony; for instance, the general properties of the sign are an integral part of synchrony although they were used to prove the necessity of separating the two linguistics.“

—  Ferdinand de Saussure, livro Course in General Linguistics, Cours de linguistique générale (1916), p. 101
Ferdinand de Saussure photo
Ferdinand de Saussure
linguista e filósofo suíço 1857 - 1913

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„Synergy is the only word in our language that means behavior of whole systems unpredicted by the separately observed behaviors of any of the system's separate parts or any subassembly of the system's parts.“

—  Buckminster Fuller American architect, systems theorist, author, designer, inventor and futurist 1895 - 1983
1960s, Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth (1963), Context: Synergy is the only word in our language that means behavior of whole systems unpredicted by the separately observed behaviors of any of the system's separate parts or any subassembly of the system's parts. There is nothing in the chemistry of a toenail that predicts the existence of a human being.

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„Although Saussure recognized the necessity of putting the phonic substance between brackets ("What is essential in language, we shall see, is foreign to the phonic character of the linguistic sign" [p. 21]. "In its essence it [the linguistic signifier] is not at all phonic" [p. 164]), Saussure, for essential, and essentially metaphysical, reasons had to privilege speech, everything that links the sign to phone. He also speaks of the "natural link" between thought and voice, meaning and sound (p. 46). He even speaks of "thought-sound" (p. 156). I have attempted elsewhere to show what is traditional in such a gesture, and to what necessities it submits. In any event, it winds up contradicting the most interesting critical motive of the Course, making of linguistics the regulatory model, the "pattern" for a general semiology of which it was to be, by all rights and theoretically, only a part. The theme of the arbitrary, thus, is turned away from its most fruitful paths (formalization) toward a hierarchizing teleology:… One finds exactly the same gesture and the same concepts in Hegel. The contradiction between these two moments of the Course is also marked by Saussure's recognizing elsewhere that "it is not spoken language that is natural to man, but the faculty of constituting a language, that is, a system of distinct signs …," that is, the possibility of the code and of articulation, independent of any substance, for example, phonic substance.“

—  Jacques Derrida, livro Positions
Positions, 1982, p. 21

Ferdinand de Saussure photo
Ferdinand de Saussure photo

„Language is a system whose parts can and must all be considered in their synchronic solidarity.“

—  Ferdinand de Saussure, livro Course in General Linguistics
Cours de linguistique générale (1916), La langue est un systéme dont toutes les parties peuvent et doivent être considérés dans leur solidarité synchronique. p. 87 (1916, p. 124; Part 1, Ch. 3, sec. 3.)

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„There is no such concept as one limit for the entice system: rather different parts of the system face different limits at different times with the traumatic experiences for the entire system depending on the interrelationship of the constituent parts - the collapse, if it occurs, would he regional rather than global, even though the entire global system would be affected.“

—  Mihajlo D. Mesarovic Serbian academic 1928
Mankind at the Turning Point, (1974), p. 55; cited in: S.W. Moore, F. Jappe (1980) " Christianity As An Ethical Matrix for No-Growth Economics http://www.asa3.org/ASA/PSCF/1980/JASA9-80Moore.html". In: Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation. Vol 32 (September 1980). pp. 164-168.

„A system is an open set of complementary, interacting parts, with properties, capabilities and behaviours of the set emerging both from the parts and from their interactions to synthesize a unified whole.“

—  Derek Hitchins British systems engineer 1935
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Alfred Horsley Hinton photo

„The sky is as much an essential part of the picture as any other part of it, and indeed, in very many instances, constitutes the key-note and important feature of the whole idea.“

—  Alfred Horsley Hinton British photographer 1863 - 1908
Practical Pictorial Photography, 1898, Clouds. Their use, and practical instructions as to how to photography them, p. 92

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“