„The aim of general synchronic linguistics is to set up the fundamental principles of any idiosynchronic system, the constituents of any language-state. Many of the items already explained in Part One belong rather to synchrony; for instance, the general properties of the sign are an integral part of synchrony although they were used to prove the necessity of separating the two linguistics.“

—  Ferdinand de Saussure, livro Course in General Linguistics, Cours de linguistique générale (1916), p. 101
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Ferdinand de Saussure
linguista e filósofo suíço 1857 - 1913
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—  Buckminster Fuller American architect, systems theorist, author, designer, inventor and futurist 1895 - 1983
1960s, Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth (1963), Context: Synergy is the only word in our language that means behavior of whole systems unpredicted by the separately observed behaviors of any of the system's separate parts or any subassembly of the system's parts. There is nothing in the chemistry of a toenail that predicts the existence of a human being.

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„Although Saussure recognized the necessity of putting the phonic substance between brackets ("What is essential in language, we shall see, is foreign to the phonic character of the linguistic sign" [p. 21]. "In its essence it [the linguistic signifier] is not at all phonic" [p. 164]), Saussure, for essential, and essentially metaphysical, reasons had to privilege speech, everything that links the sign to phone. He also speaks of the "natural link" between thought and voice, meaning and sound (p. 46). He even speaks of "thought-sound" (p. 156). I have attempted elsewhere to show what is traditional in such a gesture, and to what necessities it submits. In any event, it winds up contradicting the most interesting critical motive of the Course, making of linguistics the regulatory model, the "pattern" for a general semiology of which it was to be, by all rights and theoretically, only a part. The theme of the arbitrary, thus, is turned away from its most fruitful paths (formalization) toward a hierarchizing teleology:… One finds exactly the same gesture and the same concepts in Hegel. The contradiction between these two moments of the Course is also marked by Saussure's recognizing elsewhere that "it is not spoken language that is natural to man, but the faculty of constituting a language, that is, a system of distinct signs …," that is, the possibility of the code and of articulation, independent of any substance, for example, phonic substance.“

—  Jacques Derrida, livro Positions
Positions, 1982, p. 21

Ferdinand de Saussure photo
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„Language is a system whose parts can and must all be considered in their synchronic solidarity.“

—  Ferdinand de Saussure, livro Course in General Linguistics
Cours de linguistique générale (1916), La langue est un systéme dont toutes les parties peuvent et doivent être considérés dans leur solidarité synchronique. p. 87 (1916, p. 124; Part 1, Ch. 3, sec. 3.)

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„A system is an open set of complementary, interacting parts, with properties, capabilities and behaviours of the set emerging both from the parts and from their interactions to synthesize a unified whole.“

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Practical Pictorial Photography, 1898, Clouds. Their use, and practical instructions as to how to photography them, p. 92

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