# „The systems approach to problems does not mean that the most generally formulated problem must be solved in one research project. However desirable this may be, it is seldom possible to realize it in practice. In practice, parts of the total problem are usually solved in sequence. In many cases the total problem cannot be formulated in advance but the solution of one phase of it helps define the next phase. For example, a production control project may require determination of the most economic production quantities of different items. Once these are found it may turn out that these quantities cannot be produced on the available equipment in the available time. This, then, gives rise to a new problem whose solution will affect the solution obtained in the first phase.“

## Citações relacionadas

### „If a problem has no solution, it may not be a problem, but a fact, not to be solved, but to be coped with over time.“

— Shimon Peres Israeli politician, 8th prime minister and 9th president of Israel 1923 - 2016

As quoted by Donald Rumsfeld in "Sharon's Victory" https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB981508176687515426, Wall Street Journal (7 February 2001)

### „System costs can be considered in many different ways. For example, the cost for making the system and the cost for operating it may be used as a basic for judging the total cost. The total cost may also be arrived at in another fashion, as, for example, the sum of the fixed cost, variable cost, past investment and other charges. Furthermore, in many cases where systems engineering is required several time phases are involved for which the cost factors may be significant, such as the study phase, the breadboard phase, the prototype phase, and the production phase.“

— Harold Chestnut American engineer 1917 - 2001

p. 13

### „A system represents someone's solution to a problem. The system doesn't solve the problem.“

— John Gall American physician 1925 - 2014

p. 74 Cited in: Roger Kaufman and Fenwick W. English (1979) Needs Assessment: Concept and Application, p. 94

### „We have a given problem to solve. If we undertake the solution, there is, of course, always danger that we may not solve it aright; but to refuse to undertake the solution simply renders it certain that we cannot possibly solve it aright.“

— Theodore Roosevelt American politician, 26th president of the United States 1858 - 1919

### „The capacity of the human mind for formulating and solving complex problems is very small compared with the size of the problems whose solution is required for objectively rational behavior in the real world—or even for a reasonable approximation to such objective rationality.“

— Herbert A. Simon American political scientist, economist, sociologist, and psychologist 1916 - 2001

p. 198; Cited in: P. Slovic (1972) From Shakespeare to Simon: Speculations - And Some Evidence About Man's Ability to Process Information. Oregon Research Institute Monograph, 1972. p. 1.

### „I discovered that a whole range of problems of the most diverse character relating to the scientiﬁc organization of production (questions of the optimum distribution of the work of machines and mechanisms, the minimization of scrap, the best utilization of raw materials and local materials, fuel, transportation, and so on) lead to the formulation of a single group of mathematical problems (extremal problems). These problems are not directly comparable to problems considered in mathematical analysis. It is more correct to say that they are formally similar, and even turn out to be formally very simple, but the process of solving them with which one is faced [i. e., by mathematical analysis] is practically completely unusable, since it requires the solution of tens of thousands or even millions of systems of equations for completion.

I have succeeded in ﬁnding a comparatively simple general method of solving this group of problems which is applicable to all the problems I have mentioned, and is sufﬁciently simple and effective for their solution to be made completely achievable under practical conditions.“

— Leonid Kantorovich Russian mathematician 1912 - 1986

Kantorovich (1960) "Mathematical Methods of Organizing and Planning Production." Management Science, 6(4):366–422, 1960, p. 368); As cited in: Cockshott, W. Paul. " Mises, Kantorovich and economic computation http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/publications/PAPERS/8707/standalonearticle.pdf." (2007).

### „Art is this: art is the solution of a problem which cannot be expressed explicitly until it is solved.“

— Piet Hein Danish puzzle designer, mathematician, author, poet 1577 - 1629

Context: After all, what is art? Art is the creative process and it goes through all fields. Einstein’s theory of relativity — now that is a work of art! Einstein was more of an artist in physics than on his violin.
Art is this: art is the solution of a problem which cannot be expressed explicitly until it is solved.
As quoted in Man Creates Art Creates Man (1973) by Duane Preble, p. 14
Variant translation: Art is solving problems that cannot be formulated before they have been solved. The shaping of the question is part of the answer.
As quoted in Architecture: form, space, and order (2007) by Francis D.K. Ching, p. ix

### „The invention process is a great exercise for kids. It compels them to define an actual problem, formulate an original solution, develop a product, and share the results or products with their friends and peers.“

— Bill Nye American science educator, comedian, television host, actor, writer, scientist and former mechanical engineer 1955

### „Heuristic Search Hypothesis. The solutions to problems are represented as symbol structures. A physical symbol system exercises its intelligence in problem solving by search—that is, by generating and progressively modifying symbol structures until it produces a solution structure.“

— Allen Newell American cognitive scientist 1927 - 1992

p. 120.

### „The formulation of the problem is often more essential than its solution, which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skill.“

— Albert Einstein German-born physicist and founder of the theory of relativity 1879 - 1955

### „Ugly problems often require ugly solutions. Solving an ugly problem in a pure manner is bloody hard.“

— Rasmus Lerdorf Danish programmer and creator of PHP 1968

php.devel Mailing List, October 2002 http://osdir.com/ml/php.devel/2002-10/msg00704.html

### „However a systems problem is solved—by a planner, scientist, politician, antiplanner, or whomever—the solution is wrong, even dangerously wrong. There is bound to be deception in any approach to the system.“

— C. West Churchman American philosopher and systems scientist 1913 - 2004

p. 229; cited in Charles Smith (2007, p. 43)