„Santayana's aphorism must be reversed: too often it is those who can remember the past who are condemned to repeat it.“

The Bitter Heritage: Vietnam and American Democracy (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1966) p. 91

Última atualização 22 de Maio de 2020. História

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George Santayana photo

„Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.“

—  George Santayana 20th-century Spanish-American philosopher associated with Pragmatism 1863 - 1952

This famous statement has produced many paraphrases and variants:
Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it.
Those who do not remember their past are condemned to repeat their mistakes.
Those who do not read history are doomed to repeat it.
Those who fail to learn from the mistakes of their predecessors are destined to repeat them.
Those who do not know history's mistakes are doomed to repeat them.
There is a similar quote by Edmund Burke (in Revolution in France) that often leads to misattribution: "People will not look forward to posterity, who never look backward to their ancestors."
The Life of Reason: The Phases of Human Progress (1905-1906), Vol. I, Reason in Common Sense
Fonte: The Life of Reason: Five Volumes in One
Contexto: Progress, far from consisting in change, depends on retentiveness. When change is absolute there remains no being to improve and no direction is set for possible improvement: and when experience is not retained, as among savages, infancy is perpetual. Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.

Benjamin Graham photo

„Those who don't remember the past are condemned to repeat the eleventh grade.“

—  James W. Loewen American historian 1942

Fonte: 1990s Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong (1995), p. 1

Errol Morris photo
Chuck Palahniuk photo
Steven Pinker photo

„Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to compute it.“

—  Steven Pinker, livro Words and Rules

Fonte: Words and Rules: The Ingredients of Language

Kurt Vonnegut photo

„I've got news for Mr. Santayana: we're doomed to repeat the past no matter what. That's what it is to be alive.“

—  Kurt Vonnegut, livro Bluebeard

Fonte: Bluebeard (1987), p. 91, referring to George Santayana: "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it"

P. J. O'Rourke photo
Sung-Yoon Lee photo

„The lessons of the most traumatic past must be learned and continually relearned, not only to prevent such a tragedy from repeating itself, but also to honor, as one nation, those who made our freedom possible, and to remember that freedom is certainly never free“

—  Sung-Yoon Lee Korea and East Asia scholar, professor

Contexto: For many South Koreans today, the Korean War is little more than a tragedy of the past or a tale in abstraction. For others, it is a trauma best forgotten. But on Memorial Day, the South Koreans, as a nation, must not forget the suffering and sacrifice in their national historical experience. The lessons of the most traumatic past must be learned and continually relearned, not only to prevent such a tragedy from repeating itself, but also to honor, as one nation, those who made our freedom possible, and to remember that freedom is certainly never free.

Robert M. Pirsig photo
F. Scott Fitzgerald photo
Chuck Palahniuk photo

„Those who can forget the past are way ahead of the rest of us.“

—  Chuck Palahniuk, livro Choke

Variante: Those who forget the past are condemned to repeat it.
Fonte: Choke

George Orwell photo
George Santayana photo
Tom Baker photo
Osama bin Laden photo

„As for those who condemned these operations looked at the event [9/11] in isolation and failed to connect them to past events and did not look at the causes that lead to this result. So their point of view is narrow.“

—  Osama bin Laden founder of al-Qaeda 1957 - 2011

Al - Jazeera Broadcast Tape - On 9/11 and the American reaction http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dls5JTD-uG0 (The date of this tape is not provided, though it seems to be 2002 or 2003, but could be as early as October 2001.)
2000s

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