— Qianlong Emperor emperor of the Qing Dynasty 1711 - 1799
Russian-Qing commercial treaty in 1793 . (He Qiutao, n.d.: 12.2a) a translation by Gang Zhao of HE QIUTAO (n.d.) Shuofang beicheng (On the defense of the northern frontier). N.p.: Boshan shuju.
Fonte: Zhao 2006 https://web.archive.org/web/20140325231543/https://webspace.utexas.edu/hl4958/perspectives/Zhao%20-%20reinventing%20china.pdf, p. 9.