„There is no over-arching theory of complexity that allows us to ignore the contingent aspects of complex systems. If something really is complex, it cannot by adequately described by means of a simple theory. Engaging with complexity entails engaging with specific complex systems. Despite this we can, at a very basic level, make general remarks concerning the conditions for complex behaviour and the dynamics of complex systems. Furthermore, I suggest that complex systems can be modelled.“

Fonte: Complexity and Postmodernism (1998), p. ix

Última atualização 4 de Junho de 2020. História
Paul Cilliers photo
Paul Cilliers12
South African philosopher 1956 - 2011

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„A complex system can fail in an infinite number of ways“

—  John Gall American physician 1925 - 2014

Fonte: General systemantics, an essay on how systems work, and especially how they fail..., 1975, p. 92, cited in: Erik Hollnagel (2004) Barriers and accident prevention. p. 182

„A complex system that works is invariably found to have evolved from a simple system that worked. A complex system designed from scratch never works and cannot be patched up to make it work. You have to start over, beginning with a working simple system.“

—  John Gall American physician 1925 - 2014

Fonte: General systemantics, an essay on how systems work, and especially how they fail..., 1975, p. 65, cited in: Grady Booch (1991) Object oriented design with applications. p. 11

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„In order to constitute a complex system, the elements have to interact, and this interaction must be dynamic.“

—  Paul Cilliers South African philosopher 1956 - 2011

Fonte: Complexity and Postmodernism (1998), p. 3; as cited in: Richard Andrews, ‎Erik Borg, ‎Stephen Boyd Davis (2012), The SAGE Handbook of Digital Dissertations and Theses, p. 129

Michael Halliday photo
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Kevin Kelly photo

„Complexity must be grown from simple systems that already work.“

—  Kevin Kelly American author and editor 1952

Out of Control: The New Biology of Machines, Social Systems and the Economic World (1995)

„The classification of a system as complex or simple will depend upon the observer of the system and upon the purpose he has for considering the system.“

—  Mike Jackson systems scientist 1951

As cited in: Joseph E. Kasser (2010) " Seven systems engineering myths and the corresponding realities http://www.synergio.nl/media/59286/7_myths_of_se.pdf"
Towards a System of Systems Methodologies (1984)

„This use of building blocks to generate internal models is a pervasive feature of complex adaptive systems.“

—  John H. Holland US university professor 1929 - 2015

Fonte: Hidden Order - How Adaptation Builds Complexity (1995), Ch 1. Basic Elements, p. 37

W. Brian Arthur photo

„Complexity theory is really a movement of the sciences.“

—  W. Brian Arthur American economist 1946

"Coming from Your Inner Self", Conversation with W. Brian Arthur, Xerox PARC (16 April 1999) http://web.archive.org/web/20071011023150/http://www.dialogonleadership.org/Arthur-1999.html, by Joseph Jaworski, Gary Jusela, C. Otto Scharmer
Contexto: Complexity theory is really a movement of the sciences. Standard sciences tend to see the world as mechanistic. That sort of science puts things under a finer and finer microscope. In biology the investigations go from classifying organisms to functions of organisms, then organs themselves, then cells, and then organelles, right down to protein and enzymes, metabolic pathways, and DNA. This is finer and finer reductionist thinking.
The movement that started complexity looks in the other direction. It’s asking, how do things assemble themselves? How do patterns emerge from these interacting elements? Complexity is looking at interacting elements and asking how they form patterns and how the patterns unfold. It’s important to point out that the patterns may never be finished. They’re open-ended. In standard science this hit some things that most scientists have a negative reaction to. Science doesn’t like perpetual novelty.

Herbert A. Simon photo

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