„Democracy is a competitive political system in which competing leaders and organizations define the alternatives of public policy in such a way that the public can participate in the decision-making process.“

The Semisovereign People (1960)

Última atualização 22 de Maio de 2020. História
Elmer Eric Schattschneider photo
Elmer Eric Schattschneider8
American political scientist 1892 - 1971

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„The function of knowledge in the decision-making process is to determine which consequences follow upon which of the alternative strategies.“

—  Herbert A. Simon American political scientist, economist, sociologist, and psychologist 1916 - 2001

Fonte: 1940s-1950s, Public administration, 1950, p. 75

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„Democracy is the wholesome and pure air without which a socialist public organization cannot live a full-blooded life.“

—  Mikhail Gorbachev General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 1931

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„America is a country ready to be taken—in fact, longing to be taken—by political leaders ready to restore democracy and trust to the political process.“

—  Arianna Huffington Greek-American author and syndicated columnist 1950

[How to Overthrow the Government, 1st edition, 2000, HarperCollins, New York, ISBN 0-06-039331-9, p. 174 of 317, The Quest for Leaders]

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„One goal of a senator or representative is satisfying constituents. Publicity is essential, and one way to get publicity is to push for new policy initiatives.“

—  John W. Kingdon American political scientist 1940

Fonte: Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies - (Second Edition), Chapter 2, Participants on the Inside of Government, p. 38

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„Our recent decisions make plain that we do not sit as a super-legislature to weigh the wisdom of legislation nor to decide whether the policy which it expresses offends the public welfare.“

—  William O. Douglas Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States 1898 - 1980

Writing for the court, Day-Brite Lighting, Inc. v. Missouri, 342 U.S. 421 (1952)
Judicial opinions

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„Some observers feel it is harder to change public opinion in democracies than it is to change policies in totalitarian countries.“

—  Joseph Nye American political scientist 1937

Fonte: Understanding International Conflicts: An Introduction to Theory and History (6th ed., 2006), Chapter 5, The Cold War, p. 125.

„There is nothing automatic about campaign pledges finding their way into public policy.“

—  John W. Kingdon American political scientist 1940

Fonte: Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies - (Second Edition), Chapter 3, Outside Government, But Not Just Looking In, p. 63

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„The respondents in this case insist that a difficult question of public policy must be taken from the reach of the voters, and thus removed from the realm of public discussion, dialogue, and debate in an election campaign. Quite in addition to the serious First Amendment implications of that position with respect to any particular election, it is inconsistent with the underlying premises of a responsible, functioning democracy. One of those premises is that a democracy has the capacity—and the duty—to learn from its past mistakes; to discover and confront persisting biases; and by respectful, rationale deliberation to rise above those flaws and injustices. That process is impeded, not advanced, by court decrees based on the proposition that the public cannot have the requisite repose to discuss certain issues. It is demeaning to the democratic process to presume that the voters are not capable of deciding an issue of this sensitivity on decent and rational grounds. The process of public discourse and political debate should not be foreclosed even if there is a risk that during a public campaign there will be those, on both sides, who seek to use racial division and discord to their own political advantage. An informed public can, and must, rise above this. The idea of democracy is that it can, and must, mature. Freedom embraces the right, indeed the duty, to engage in a rational, civic discourse in order to determine how best to form a consensus to shape the destiny of the Nation and its people.“

—  Anthony Kennedy Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States 1936

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„Electronic management as a political issue can be approached in several ways. I propose, at the beginning of this public consultation, to approach the issue as one of political ecology.“

—  Ivan Illich austrian philosopher and theologist 1926 - 2002

Ecology, during the last ten years, has acquired a new meaning. It is still the name for a branch of professional biology, but the term now increasingly serves as the label under which a broad, politically organized general public analyzes and influences technical decisions.
Silence is a Commons (1982)

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“