Frases de W.E.B. Du Bois

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W.E.B. Du Bois

Data de nascimento: 23. Fevereiro 1868
Data de falecimento: 27. Agosto 1963
Outros nomes: ویلیام دوبوآ

William Edward Burghardt "W. E. B." Du Bois foi um sociólogo, historiador, ativista, autor e editor. Nascido no interior do estado de Massachusetts, Du Bois cresceu em uma comunidade relativamente tolerante e integrada. Casou-se com Nina Gomer em 1896, com quem teve dois filhos: Burghart e Yolanda. Um ano depois da morte de Nina, casou-se com Shirley Graham.Du Bois recebeu um diploma em 1888 pela Universidade Fisk, e um segundo diploma pela Harvard em 1890. Depois de dois anos de estudo na Universidade de Berlim, recebeu seu Ph.D pela Harvard em 1895.W.E.B. Du Bois foi um autor prolífico, que publicou mais de vinte livros ao longo de sua vida. Além das publicações acadêmicas, escreveu novelas e poesia. Foi também um ativista ferrenho da justiça social e racial. Ele foi o principal fundador do "Movimento Niagara", no qual exercia a função de Secretário Geral. No mais, fundou o National Association for the Advancement of Colored People , exercendo a função de Presidente do Conselho por muitos anos. Combateu abertamente questões da sua época como linchamentos, discriminação e exploração colonial, também foi o líder mundial do movimento pan-africano, servindo como Secretário do Primeiro Congresso pan-africano. Tornou-se um socialista que lutou pelos direitos das mulheres, dos judeus, e dos trabalhadores, podendo ser considerado como um dos arquitetos do movimento dos direitos civis. Fundou a American Black Academy, onde pode apoiar manifestações de arte e cultura.Du Bois ganhou proeminência nacional como líder do Movimento do Niagara, um grupo de ativistas afro-americanos que lutavam por direitos iguais para os negros. Du Bois e seus defensores se opuseram ao Compromisso de Atlanta, um acordo elaborado por Booker T. Washington que versava que os negros do sul trabalhariam e submeter-se-iam às regras políticas dos brancos, enquanto os brancos do Sul garantiriam que os negros recebessem oportunidades educacionais e econômicas básicas. No entanto, Du Bois insistiu na determinação de plenos direitos civis e aumento da representação política dos negros, que ele acreditava que seria reivindicada pela elite intelectual afro-americana. Ele referiu-se a este grupo como o décimo talentoso e acreditava que os afro-americanos necessitavam de chances para ter uma formação avançada e desenvolver sua liderança.

O racismo foi o principal alvo das polêmicas de Du Bois, tendo protestado fortemente contra o linchamento, leis de Jim Crow e discriminação na educação e no emprego. A sua causa incluiu pessoas de cor em todos os lugares, especialmente africanos e asiáticos em suas lutas contra o colonialismo e o imperialismo. Ele era um defensor do pan-africanismo e ajudou a organizar vários Congressos Pan-Africanos para defender a libertação das colônias africanas das potências europeias. Du Bois fez várias viagens para a Europa, África e Ásia. Após a Primeira Guerra Mundial, ele pesquisou as experiências dos soldados negros americanos na França e documentado intolerância generalizada nas forças armadas dos Estados Unidos.

Apesar de sua luta contra o racismo, Du Bois aceitava o princípio eugênico segundo o qual os indivíduos possuiriam diferentes características inatas que os fariam mais ou menos adequados a diferentes funções sociais. Além disso, acreditava que os mais talentosos dentro de cada raça deveriam procriar para ciar uma humanidade melhor.Du Bois foi um autor prolífico considerado o pai do pan-africanismo. Sua coleção de ensaios, As Almas da Gente Negra , foi um trabalho seminal na literatura Africano-Americana; e seu magnum opus de 1935, A Reconstrução Negra na América desafiou a ortodoxia dominante de que os negros eram responsáveis pelos fracassos da era da Reconstrução dos Estados Unidos. Ele escreveu o primeiro tratado científico no campo da Sociologia; e publicou três autobiografias, cada qual contendo ensaios perspicazes sobre Sociologia, Política e História. Em seu papel como editor do jornal da NAACP, A Crise , publicou muitas peças influentes. Du Bois acreditava que o capitalismo era a principal causa de racismo, e era geralmente solidário com os socialistas ao longo de sua vida. Ele era um ativista ardente da paz e defendeu o desarmamento nuclear. A Lei dos Direitos Civis dos Estados Unidos, incorporando muitas das reformas para que Du Bois tinha defendido toda a sua vida, foi promulgada um ano após sua morte.

Citações W.E.B. Du Bois

„The most magnificent drama in the last thousand years of human history is the transportation of ten million human beings out of the dark beauty of their mother continent into the new-found Eldorado of the West.“

—  W.E.B. Du Bois, livro Black Reconstruction

Fonte: Black Reconstruction in America (1935), p. 727
Contexto: The most magnificent drama in the last thousand years of human history is the transportation of ten million human beings out of the dark beauty of their mother continent into the new-found Eldorado of the West. They descended into Hell; and in the third century they arose from the dead, in the finest effort to achieve democracy for the working millions which this world had ever seen. It was a tragedy that beggared the Greek; it was an upheaval of humanity like the Reformation and the French Revolution. Yet we are blind and led by the blind. We discern in it no part of our labor movement; no part of our industrial triumph; no part of our religious experience. Before the dumb eyes of ten generations of ten million children, it is made mockery of and spit upon; a degradation of the eternal mother; a sneer at human effort; with aspiration and art deliberately and elaborately distorted. And why? Because in a day when the human mind aspired to a science of human action, a history and psychology of the mighty effort of the mightiest century, we fell under the leadership of those who would compromise with truth in the past in order to make peace in the present and guide policy in the future.

„Either the United States will destroy ignorance or ignorance will destroy the United States.“

—  W.E.B. Du Bois

"Niagara Movement Speech" (1905) http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/niagara-movement-speech/ <!--originally a portion of this was cited here to an Address to the Nation speech at Harpers Ferry, Virginia (16 August 1906); published in the New York Times on (20 August 1906) — but that does not correspond with the info at the link. -->
Contexto: The school system in the country districts of the South is a disgrace and in few towns and cities are Negro schools what they ought to be. We want the national government to step in and wipe out illiteracy in the South. Either the United States will destroy ignorance or ignorance will destroy the United States.
And when we call for education we mean real education. We believe in work. We ourselves are workers, but work is not necessarily education. Education is the development of power and ideal. We want our children trained as intelligent human beings should be, and we will fight for all time against any proposal to educate black boys and girls simply as servants and underlings, or simply for the use of other people. They have a right to know, to think, to aspire.
These are some of the chief things which we want. How shall we get them? By voting where we may vote, by persistent, unceasing agitation; by hammering at the truth, by sacrifice and work.
We do not believe in violence, neither in the despised violence of the raid nor the lauded violence of the soldier, nor the barbarous violence of the mob, but we do believe in John Brown, in that incarnate spirit of justice, that hatred of a lie, that willingness to sacrifice money, reputation, and life itself on the altar of right. And here on the scene of John Brown’s martyrdom we reconsecrate ourselves, our honor, our property to the final emancipation of the race which John Brown died to make free.
Our enemies, triumphant for the present, are fighting the stars in their courses. Justice and humanity must prevail.

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„There is but one coward on earth, and that is the coward that dare not know.“

—  W.E.B. Du Bois, livro Dusk of Dawn

The Study of the Negro Problems, paragraph 50, in The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. XI (January 1898) http://www.webdubois.org/dbStudyofnprob.html
Fonte: Dusk of Dawn

„The cost of liberty is less than the price of repression.“

—  W.E.B. Du Bois, livro John Brown

John Brown: A Biography (1909): "The Legacy of John Brown"

„One ever feels his twoness, -- an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings; two warring ideals in one dark body, whose strenth alone keeps it from being torn asunder.“

—  W.E.B. Du Bois, livro The Souls of Black Folk

Fonte: The Souls of Black Folk (1903), Ch. I: Of Our Spiritual Strivings
Contexto: After the Egyptian and Indian, the Greek and Roman, the Teuton and Mongolian, the Negro is a sort of seventh son, born with a veil, and gifted with second-sight in this American world, — a world which yields him no true self-consciousness, but only lets him see himself through the revelation of the other world. It is a peculiar sensation, this double-consciousness, this sense of always looking at one's self through the eyes of others, of measuring one's soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity. One ever feels his twoness, — an American, a Negro; two warring souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings; two warring ideals in one dark body, whose dogged strength alone keeps it from being torn asunder.The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife, — this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self.

„How shall Integrity face Oppression?“

—  W.E.B. Du Bois

The Ordeal of Mansart (1957) [Kraus-Thomson, 1976, ], p. 275
Contexto: How shall Integrity face Oppression? What shall Honesty do in the face of Deception, Decency in the face of Insult, Self-Defense before Blows? How shall Desert and Accomplishment meet Despising, Detraction, and Lies? What shall Virtue do to meet Brute Force? There are so many answers and so contradictory; and such differences for those on the one hand who meet questions similar to this once a year or once a decade, and those who face them hourly and daily.

„We do not believe in violence, neither in the despised violence of the raid nor the lauded violence of the soldier, nor the barbarous violence of the mob, but we do believe in John Brown, in that incarnate spirit of justice, that hatred of a lie, that willingness to sacrifice money, reputation, and life itself on the altar of right. And here on the scene of John Brown’s martyrdom we reconsecrate ourselves, our honor, our property to the final emancipation of the race which John Brown died to make free.“

—  W.E.B. Du Bois

"Niagara Movement Speech" (1905) http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/niagara-movement-speech/ <!--originally a portion of this was cited here to an Address to the Nation speech at Harpers Ferry, Virginia (16 August 1906); published in the New York Times on (20 August 1906) — but that does not correspond with the info at the link. -->
Contexto: The school system in the country districts of the South is a disgrace and in few towns and cities are Negro schools what they ought to be. We want the national government to step in and wipe out illiteracy in the South. Either the United States will destroy ignorance or ignorance will destroy the United States.
And when we call for education we mean real education. We believe in work. We ourselves are workers, but work is not necessarily education. Education is the development of power and ideal. We want our children trained as intelligent human beings should be, and we will fight for all time against any proposal to educate black boys and girls simply as servants and underlings, or simply for the use of other people. They have a right to know, to think, to aspire.
These are some of the chief things which we want. How shall we get them? By voting where we may vote, by persistent, unceasing agitation; by hammering at the truth, by sacrifice and work.
We do not believe in violence, neither in the despised violence of the raid nor the lauded violence of the soldier, nor the barbarous violence of the mob, but we do believe in John Brown, in that incarnate spirit of justice, that hatred of a lie, that willingness to sacrifice money, reputation, and life itself on the altar of right. And here on the scene of John Brown’s martyrdom we reconsecrate ourselves, our honor, our property to the final emancipation of the race which John Brown died to make free.
Our enemies, triumphant for the present, are fighting the stars in their courses. Justice and humanity must prevail.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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