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Murray Gell-Mann

Data de nascimento: 15. Setembro 1929

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Murray Gell-Mann é um físico estadunidense.

É professor emérito de física teórica do Instituto de Tecnologia da Califórnia e um dos fundadores do Instituto Santa Fé, que se dedica a trabalhos teóricos de assuntos como mecânica quântica, supercordas, sistema imunológico dos mamíferos, evolução das línguas e economia global, vistos como sistemas complexos em evolução.

Pertencente a uma família judaica de imigrantes é filho de Pauline Reichstein e Arthur Isadore Gell-Mann. Desde cedo Murray revelou-se como uma criança prodígio, aprendeu a ler aos três anos, influenciado pelo seu irmão Benedict Gell-Mann, os dois passavam longas tardes em grandes museus pesquisando seções de arqueologia e arte. Também estudaram latim, francês e espanhol o que despertou a Gell-Mann seu interesse por idiomas. Aos 8 anos passou de uma escola pública para uma instituição de crianças super dotadas na Columbia , onde lá fez o secundário, formando-se mediano em 1944 aos 15 anos.

O desejo de Gell-Mann era seguir a área da arqueologia ou linguística, mas seu pai, o influenciava a área da Engenharia. Mediante a situação, Gell-Mann afirmava que preferia "morrer de fome ao se tornar engenheiro" e após algumas conversas, chegaram a um acordo optando por Física. Obteve o seu diploma de bacharel em ciências, em 1948, na Universidade de Yale e após ser recusado em algumas universidades à sua escolha, fez sua pós graduação no Instituto Tecnológico de Massachusetts onde trabalhou como assistente de Victor Weisskopf até 1951 quando concluiu o doutorado ainda no MIT.

Gell-Mann e Abraham Pais estiveram envolvidos na explicação muitos aspectos enigmáticos da física das partículas. Em 1961, esta situação levou-lhe a introduzir uma classificação de partículas elementares chamada hádrons. Este esquema é agora explicado pelo modelo quark. O nome dado pelo próprio Gell-Mann para o sistema de classificação foi o caminho dos oito preceitos, devido aos octetos de partículas na classificação. O termo é uma referência ao Nobre Caminho Óctuplo do budismo - uma escolha que é reflexo dos seus eclético interesses. Gell-Mann e, de forma independente, George Zweig, prosseguiu, em 1964, para postular a existência de quarks, as partículas a partir da qual os hádrons , até então tidos como indivisíveis, são compostos. O nome foi cunhado por Gell-Mann e é uma referência ao romance Finnegans Wake, de James Joyce .

Citações Murray Gell-Mann

„While many questions about quantum mechanics are still not fully resolved, there is no point in introducing needless mystification where in fact no problem exists.“

— Murray Gell-Mann
Context: While many questions about quantum mechanics are still not fully resolved, there is no point in introducing needless mystification where in fact no problem exists. Yet a great deal of recent writing about quantum mechanics has done just that. Ch. 12 : Quantum Mechanics and Flapdoodle, p. 167.

„The principal distortion disseminated ... is the implication, or even the explicit claim, that measuring the polarization, circular or plane, of one of the“

— Murray Gell-Mann
Context: The principal distortion disseminated... is the implication, or even the explicit claim, that measuring the polarization, circular or plane, of one of the [EPRB] photons somehow affects the other photon. In fact, the measurement does not cause any physical effect to propagate from one photon to the other.... If on one branch of history, the plane polarization of one photon is measured and thereby specified with certainty, then on the same branch of history the circular polarization of the other photon is also specified with certainty. On a different branch of history the circular polarization of one of the photons may be measured, in which case the circular polarization of both photons is specified with certainty. On each branch, the situation is like that of Bertlmann's socks, described by John Bell... Bertlmann... always wears one pink and one green sock. If you see just one... you know immediately the other... Yet no signal is propogated... Likewise no signal passes from one photon to the other in the experiment that confirms quantum mechanics. No action at a distance takes place. Ch. 12 : Quantum Mechanics and Flapdoodle, p. 172.

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„I could always try MIT and then kill myself later if it was that bad but that I couldn't commit suicide and then try MIT afterwards.“

— Murray Gell-Mann
Context: I thought of killing myself but soon decided that I could always try MIT and then kill myself later if it was that bad but that I couldn't commit suicide and then try MIT afterwards. The two operations, suicide and going to MIT, don't commute... "The Making of a Physicist : A Talk with Murray Gell-Mann" at Edge.org (2003) http://www.edge.org/3rd_culture/gell-mann03/gell-mann_print.html.

„Today the network of relationships linking the human race to itself and to the rest of the biosphere is so complex that all aspects affect all others to an extraordinary degree.“

— Murray Gell-Mann
Context: Today the network of relationships linking the human race to itself and to the rest of the biosphere is so complex that all aspects affect all others to an extraordinary degree. Someone should be studying the whole system, however crudely that has to be done, because no gluing together of partial studies of a complex nonlinear system can give a good idea of the behaviour of the whole. Murray Gell-Mann in ISSS The Primer Project http://www.newciv.org/ISSS_Primer/seminar.html International Society for the Systems Sciences (ISSS) seminar (12 October - 10 November 1997).

„The false report that measuring one of the photons immediately affects the other leads to all sorts of unfortunate conclusions.“

— Murray Gell-Mann
Context: The false report that measuring one of the photons immediately affects the other leads to all sorts of unfortunate conclusions.... the alleged effect... would violate the requirement of relativity theory that no signal... can travel faster than the speed of light. If it were to do so, it would appear to observers in some states of motion that the signal were traveling backward in time. Ch. 12 : Quantum Mechanics and Flapdoodle, pp. 172-173 see EPR paradox.

„You don't need something more to get something more. That's what emergence means.“

— Murray Gell-Mann
Context: You don't need something more to get something more. That's what emergence means. Life can emerge from physics and chemistry plus a lot of accidents. The human mind can arise from neurobiology and a lot of accidents, the way the chemical bond arises from physics and certain accidents. Doesn't diminish the importance of these subjects to know they follow from more fundamental things plus accidents. TED talk on beauty and truth in physics — video TC 14m48s (March 2007) http://ted.com/index.php/talks/murray_gell_mann_on_beauty_and_truth_in_physics.html.

„Just because things get a little dingy at the subatomic level doesn't mean all bets are off.“

— Murray Gell-Mann
Attributed to Murray Gell-Mann by Penn Jillette, Penn Radio (14 February 2007) http://penn.freefm.com/episode_download.php?contentType=36&contentId=364451.

„If I have seen further than others, it is because I am surrounded by dwarfs.“

— Murray Gell-Mann
As quoted in "Wilson vs Watson: The blessing of great enemies" by Amanda Gefter in New Scientist (10 September 2009) http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn17771-wilson-vs-watson-the-blessing-of-great-enemies.html; this is a play upon the famous statement by Isaac Newton: "If I have seen further it is only by standing on the shoulders of giants."

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