Frases de Maurice Merleau-Ponty

Maurice Merleau-Ponty foto

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Maurice Merleau-Ponty

Data de nascimento: 14. Março 1908
Data de falecimento: 3. Maio 1961

Maurice Merleau-Ponty foi um filósofo fenomenólogo francês.

Estudou na École normale supérieure de Paris, graduando-se em filosofia em 1931. Lecionou em vários liceus antes da Segunda Guerra, durante a qual serviu como oficial do exército francês. Em 1945 foi nomeado professor de filosofia da Universidade de Lyon. Em 1949 foi chamado a lecionar na Universidade de Paris I .

Em 1952 ganhou a cadeira de filosofia no Collège de France. De 1945 a 1952 foi co-editor da revista Les Temps Modernes.

Suas primeiras obras procuraram dialogar com a psicologia La Structure du comportement e Phénoménologie de la perception . Influenciado pela obra de Edmund Husserl, Merleau-Ponty procura dar carnalidade à consciencia intencional de seu mestre e precursor, nesse sentido leva a filosofia de Husserl até as últimas consequência de sua encarnação no mundo da vida.

Voltando sua atenção para a questões sociais e políticas, Merleau-Ponty publicou em 1947 um conjunto de ensaios marxistas - Humanisme et terreur , a mais elaborada defesa do comunismo soviético do final dos anos 1940. Contrário ao julgamento do terrorismo soviético, atacou o que considerava "hipocrisia ocidental". Porém a guerra da Coreia desiludiu-o e fê-lo romper com Sartre, que apoiava os comunistas da Coreia do Norte.

Em 1955, Merleau-Ponty publicou mais ensaios marxistas, Les Aventures de la dialectique . Essa coleção, no entanto, indicava sua mudança de posição: o marxismo não aparece mais como a última palavra na História, mas apenas como uma metodologia heurística.

Segundo Merleau-Ponty, quando o ser humano se depara com algo que se apresenta diante de sua consciência, primeiro nota e percebe esse objecto em total harmonia com a sua forma, a partir de sua consciência perceptiva. Após perceber o objecto, este entra em sua consciência e passa a ser um fenómeno.

Com a intenção de percebê-lo, o ser humano intui algo sobre ele, imagina-o em toda sua plenitude, e será capaz de descrever o que ele realmente é. Dessa forma, o conhecimento do fenómeno é gerado em torno do próprio fenómeno.

Para Merleau-Ponty, o ser humano é o centro da discussão sobre o conhecimento. O conhecimento nasce e faz-se sensível em sua corporeidade.

„O artista é aquele que fixa e torna acessível aos demais humanos o espetáculo de que participam sem perceber.“

„Ao quebrar o silêncio a linguagem realiza o que o silêncio pretendia e não conseguiu obter.“

„Quando percebo, não penso o mundo, ele organiza-se diante de mim.“

„A ilusão nos engana justamente fazendo-nos passar por uma percepção autêntica.“

„Para se ser completamente Homem, indispensável se torna ser um pouco mais e um pouco menos do que homem.“

„A verdadeira filosofia é reaprender a ver o mundo.“

„We know not through our intellect but through our experience.“

„Humanity is not an aggregate of individuals, a community of thinkers, each of whom is guaranteed from the outset to be able to reach agreement with the others because all participate in the same thinking essence. Nor, of course, is it a single Being in which the multiplicity of individuals are dissolved and into which these individuals are destined to be reabsorbed. As a matter of principle, humanity is precarious: each person can only believe what he recognizes to be true internally and, at the same time, nobody thinks or makes up his mind without already being caught up in certain relationships with others, which leads him to opt for a particular set of opinions. Everyone is alone and yet nobody can do without other people, not just because they are useful (which is not in dispute here) but also when it comes to happiness.“ The World of Perception

„Language signifies when instead of copying thought it lets itself be taken apart and put together again by thought. Language bears the sense of thought as a footprint signifies the movement and effort of a body. The empirical use of already established language should be distinguished from its creative use. Empirical language can only be the result of creative language. Speech in the sense of empirical language - that is, the opportune recollection of a preestablished sign – is not speech in respect to an authentic language. It is, as Mallarmé said, the worn coin placed silently in my hand. True speech, on the contrary - speech which signifies, which finally renders "l'absente de tous bouquets" present and frees the sense captive in the thing - is only silence in respect to empirical usage, for it does not go so far as to become a common noun. Language is oblique and autonomous, and if it sometimes signifies a thought or a thing directly, that is only a secondary power derived from its inner life. Like the weaver, the writer works on the wrong side of his material. He has only to do with the language, and it is thus that he suddenly finds himself surrounded by sense.“ Signs

„This also means that philosophy itself must not take itself as established in the truths it has managed to utter, that philosophy is an ever-renewed experiment of its own beginning, and finally, that radical reflection is conscious of its own dependence on an unreflected life that is its initial, constant, and final situation.“ Phenomenology of Perception

„The world is inseparable from the subject, but from a subject which is nothing but a project of the world, and the subject is inseparable from the world, but from a world which the subject itself projects.“ Phenomenology of Perception

„There is no more individuated being in the system. We only ever have to deal with families of trajectories.“

„Esthesiological body and erotic body in a relation of intercorporeality in the biosphere with all animality and by introjection & projection.“

„The color is yet another variant in another dimension of variation, that of its relations with the surroundings: this red is what it is only by connecting up from its place with other reds about it, with which it forms a constellation, or with other colors it dominates or that dominate it, that it attracts or that attracts it, that it repels or that repel it. In short, it is a certain node in the woof of the simultaneous and the successive. It is a concretion of visibility, it is not an atom. The red dress a fortiori holds with all its fibers onto the fabric of
the visible, and thereby onto a fabric of invisible being. A punctuation in the field of red things, which includes the tiles of roof tops, the flags of gatekeepers and of the Revolution, certain terrains near Aix or in Madagascar, it is also a punctuation in the field of red garments, which includes, along with the dresses of women, robes of professors, bishops, and advocate generals, and also in the field of adornments and that of uniforms. And its red literally is not the same as it appears in one constellation or in the other, as the pure essence of the Revolution of 1917 precipitates in it, or that of the eternal feminine, or that of the public prosecutor, or that of the gypsies dressed like hussars who reigned twenty-five years ago over an inn on the Champs-Elysées. A certain red is also a fossil drawn up from the depths of imaginary worlds. If we took all these participations into account, we would recognize that a naked color, and in general a visible, is not a chunk of absolutely hard, indivisible being, offered all naked to a vision which could be only total or null, but is rather a sort of straits between exterior horizons and interior horizons ever gaping open, something that comes to touch lightly and makes diverse regions of the colored or visible world resound at the distances, a certain differentiation, an ephemeral modulation of this world—less a color or a thing, therefore, than a difference between things and colors, a momentary crystallization of colored being or of
visibility. Between the alleged colors and visibles, we would find anew the tissue that lines them, sustains them, nourishes them, and which for its part is not a thing, but a possibility, a latency, and a flesh of things.“
The Visible and the Invisible

„Any commemoration is also a betrayal.“ Signs

„There is no universal clock, but local histories take form beneath our eyes, and begin to regulate themselves, and haltingly are linked to one another and demand to live, and confirm the powerful in the wisdom which the immensity of the risks and the consciousness of their own disorder had given them. The world is more present to itself in all its parts than it ever was.“ Signs

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