# Frases de George Klir

## George Klir

**Data de nascimento:** 6. Setembro 1932**Data de falecimento:** 27. Maio 2016

George Jiří Klir was a Czech-American computer scientist and professor of systems sciences at Binghamton University in Binghamton, New York.

### Citações George Klir

### „In mathematics, logic, linguistics, and other abstract disciplines, the systems are not assigned to objects. They are defined by an enumeration of the variables, their admissible values, and their algebraic, topological, grammatical, and other properties which, in the given case, determine the relations between the variables under consideration.“

Fonte: An approach to general systems theory (1969), p. 40.

### „The term “system” is unquestionably one of the most widely used terms not only in science, but in other areas of human endeavor as well. It is a highly overworked term, which enjoys different meanings under different circumstances and for different people. However, when separated from its specific connotations and uses, the term "system" is almost never explicitly defined.“

Fonte: Facets of Systems Science, (2001), p. 4.

### „No classification is complete and perfect for all purposes.“

Fonte: An approach to general systems theory (1969), p. 69.

### „Among the various paradigmatic changes in science and mathematics in this century, one such change concerns the concept of uncertainty.“

In science, this change has been manifested by a gradual transition from the traditional view, which insists that uncertainty is undesirable in science and should be avoided by all possible means, to an alternative view, which is tolerant of uncertainty and insists that science cannot avoid it. According to the traditional view, science should strive for certainty in all its manifestations (precision, specificity, sharpness, consistency, etc.); hence, uncertainty (imprecision, nonspecificity, vagueness, inconsistency,etc.) is regarded as unscientific. According to the alternative (or modem) view, uncertainty is considered essential to science; it is not only an unavoidable plague, but it has, in fact, a great utility.

Fonte: Fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic (1995), p. 1.

### „Probability theory is an ideal tool for formalizing uncertainty in situations where class frequencies are known or where evidence is based on outcomes of a sufficiently long series of independent random experiments. Possibility theory, on the other hand, is ideal for formalizing incomplete information expressed in terms of fuzzy propositions.“

Fonte: Fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic (1995), p. 205 cited in: Flavio Comim, et al. (2008) The Capability Approach: Concepts, Measures and Applications. p. 298.

### „The term fuzzy logic is used in this paper to describe an imprecise logical system, FL, in which the truth-values are fuzzy subsets of the unit interval with linguistic labels such as true, false, not true, very true, quite true, not very true and not very fake, etc…. As a consequence, the truth tables and the rules of inference in fuzzy logic are (i) inexact and (ii) dependent on the meaning associated with the primary truth-value true as well as the modifiers very quite.“

Lotfi Asker Zadeh, George Klir, Bo Yuan (1996) Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy Logic, and Fuzzy Systems: Selected Papers. p. 238.

### „Systems science is what systems scientists do when they claim they do science.“

Facets of Systems Science, (2001)

### „Systems science is that field of scientific inquiry whose objects of study are systems.

Without further explanation, these deﬁnitions are clearly of little use.“

Fonte: Facets of Systems Science, (2001), p. 3.

### „Systems science is a science whose domain of inquiry consists of those properties of systems and associated problems that emanate from the general notion of systemhood.“

George Klir (2001) Facets of Systems Science. Kluwer: New York. p. 5; As cited by: Hieronymi, A. (2013), Understanding Systems Science: A Visual and Integrative Approach. Syst. Res. doi: 10.1002/sres.2215.

### „Applying this approach, systems belonging to different scientific disciplines are investigated in their natural forms. On the basis of experimental results, isomorphic relations between different systems are studied and, finally, some general principles applicable for all systems of a certain class are formulated.“

Fonte: An approach to general systems theory (1969), p. 97 as cited in: B. Van Rootselaar (2009) Annals of Systems Research. p. 114: About the aim of general systems theory

### „To select an appropriate fuzzy implication for approximate reasoning under each particular situation is a difficult problem. Although some theoretically supported guidelines are now available for some situations, we are still far from a general solution to this problem.“

Fonte: Fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic (1995), p. 312 as cited in: William Siler, James J. Buckley (2005) Fuzzy Expert Systems and Fuzzy Reasoning. p. 36.